The Business Review Journal

Vol. 12 * Number 2 * Summer 2009

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC  *  ISSN 1553 - 5827

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The Influences of Global Market and Local Cultural Forces on Management Accounting

Dr. Roberta J. Cable, Pace University, NY

Dr. Patricia Healy, Pace University, NY

Dr. Claudia (Chunyan) Li, Pace University, NY



This paper examines the impact of local cultural influences as well as global market forces on the use of management accounting tools (MATs). MATs broadly defined include accounting practices used in management planning, control and performance measurement systems. We surveyed the use of MATs by Indian firms that listed ADRs on the U.S. capital markets and compared our results with prior studies on firms from other developing countries as well as those from the U.S.  We chose Indian firms because India is an important developing nation that has an important global presence.  Our research extends earlier studies in several ways.  First, it updated the use of MATs in India.  Second, only firms that listed ADRs on the U.S. capital market were sampled.  We chose these firms because they are likely to be influenced by both the local culture and the global market economy. Third, we surveyed MATs used in India compared to those used in the U.S.  The surveyed MATs were used by more than 20% of U.S. firms in a previous study performed by the Institute of Management Accountants.  Fourth, our study used a sample consisting of both manufacturing and non-manufacturing companies, which is broader than the prior studies done on firms in India. Fifth, we explored the impacts of size and industry classification on the choice of MATs.  Overall, we found a high use of MATs by Indian firms.  These firms are larger companies and are influenced by several factors such as local culture and economic development as well as mitigating global market forces.  Contrary to prior findings that the use of contemporary tools is lacking in developing countries as compared to the U.S., we found that our sample of Indian firms had a high use of some contemporary MATs. Our results also indicate that size influenced the choice of certain MATs. In addition, industry classification did impact the choice of certain MATs, such as activity based costing, balanced scorecard and target costing. 


Effective Communication in Health Care: Strategies to Improve Communication Skills for Managers

Dr. Kristina L. Guo, Professor and Program Director, University of Hawaii-West Oahu, Pearl City, HI



The purpose of this paper is to discuss the key elements of the communication process, types of communication skills, and explore various strategies to improve communication.  More specifically, the intent is to address professional communication skills needed by health care managers to direct overall organizational performance.  Because effective communication skills is correlated with a manager’s functions to lead, direct, plan, and organize, a skilled manager must focus on ways to improve his/her communications to foster better understanding among employees, minimize conflicts, and influence attitudes and behaviors to maintain positive workplace interactions.  Feedback, information that individuals receive about their communications, can be used to promote more effective communication.  The mediums or channels of communication are the means by which messages are transmitted. Ineffective communication occurs when barriers distort the communication process.  This paper discusses several ways to overcome these barriers to enhance communication. To improve managerial communication skills, health care managers are encouraged to must make conscious efforts to develop and apply the techniques and strategies outlined in this paper.  To be successful in one’s career, an individual must master effective communication skills. Although we utilize various forms of communication on a daily basis, it is not the ability to communicate that we lack, but rather the ability to communicate well and convey our meanings as intended. 


Cross-Cultural Conceptions of Organizational Justice: The Impact of Eastern Religions/Philosophies

Dr. Nina Cole, Ryerson University, Toronto, Canada



The extant academic literature on organizational justice has largely emanated from the West. Initial research on cross-cultural organizational justice suggests that perceptions of justice may be influenced by differing cultural values. Religious values have a profound influence on views of social justice and affect beliefs about the type of social order that will minimize societal well-being. Therefore in order to understand what constitutes organizational justice in Asian cultures, it may be important to consider the values in Eastern religions. A review of the major Eastern religions – Confucianism, Buddhism, Islam – indicates that the impact of these religions/philosophies on perceptions of organizational justice may be worthy of further research. The academic literature on organizational justice to date has largely been conducted by Western researchers using principles of justice derived from a Western perspective (Brockner et al, 2000; Greenberg, 2001). Thus the generalizability of knowledge regarding employee perceptions of organizational justice may be limited in non-Western contexts (Greenberg, 2001). It has even been suggested that the very meaning of justice might change radically across cultures (Kidder & Muller, 1991).  Numerous researchers have called for more cross-cultural investigation of organizational justice and for more ethnographic, indigenous research to provide a basis for theory building (Greenberg, 2001; Leung & Kwong, 2003; Morris et al, 1999). Justice is a cognitively constructed interpretation of events (Morris et al, 1999), and although concerns about fair treatment in the workplace may be expected to be universal, operationalization of justice standards may be highly particularistic (Greenberg, 2001).  


The Market’s Response to Bundled Announcements: The Case of Equity Issues

Dr. Onur Arugaslan, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI

Dr. Yasemin Ulu, Temple University, Philadelphia, PA

Dr. Devrim Yaman, Western Michigan University, Kalamazoo, MI



In this study, we analyze the bundling behavior of firms around the announcements of equity issues. We find that the number of negative news announcements made one month before the equity issue announcement was about five times more than that made in the equity issue announcement period while the number of positive news announcements was about the same for both periods. Firms that bundle equity issue announcements with negative announcements obtain more negative announcement returns while positive bundling does not affect announcement returns. These results indicate that firms release their negative information prior to the equity issue announcement period in order to avoid worsening the negative stock price reaction to equity issues. We also find that bundling behavior is sticky; firms that have bundled their equity issue announcement with positive or negative information in the past continue to bundle with the same type of information in the current issue. Studies on the market reaction to the announcements of corporate events typically exclude firms that make other disclosures during the announcement period from their samples. However, there could be valuable information in the disclosures these studies exclude. Specifically, since negative market reactions are costly for firms, companies may combine bad news announcements with good news announcements in an effort to mitigate the negative reaction. In fact, De Roon and Veld (1998) show that for Dutch firms the announcements of negative news events of convertible bond and warrant bond issues are usually surrounded by announcements of good news and therefore these announcements result in positive stock price reactions.


Toward a Multi-dimensional Understanding of Guanxi: A Study of Business Ethics in the Chinese Banking Industry

Dr. Kylie Redfern, University of Technology, Sydney, Australia

Cynthia Ho, University of New South Wales, Sydney, Australia



Guanxi, or social connections, has received increasing attention in the literature as the Western world grapples with the complexity of doing business with China.  However the concept is often oversimplified in Western writings on business ethics. Networking and connections are seen as a business necessity, but on the other hand guanxi has been associated with corruption and calculative means of doing business. This study examines different dimensions of guanxi and their relationship to traditional vs modern value orientations. The study finds guanxi comprises two dimensions, one representing traditional Chinese values of reciprocity and face and the other a more modern networking style not dissimilar to that emphasised in the West. The need for a multi-dimensional approach to Guanxi is emphasised and discussed.  Guanxi is a Chinese word literally translated to mean ‘social connections’, and regarded as a key determinant to business success in modern Chinese society, particularly mainland China (Luo, 2000; Leung, Wong & Wong, 1996).  Since the open-door policy was introduced in 1978, China began to change from a planned economy to a market-oriented system.  In the face of increasing business contact between mainland Chinese and foreigners in the late 1970’s, the word ‘guanxi’ has become popular business jargon in English (Gold ,Guthrie, & Wank, 2002).  Nowadays, guanxi is used by Chinese and non-Chinese speakers to mean a mainland Chinese way of networking.   Guanxi is different from the western approach of networking although they share some similarities.  


The Euro:  The Next Global Currency?

Andrew Foederer, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX

Dr. Bala Maniam, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX

Dr. Hadley Leavell, Sam Houston State University, Huntsville, TX



In the middle of the twentieth century, the United States dollar overtook the British pound as the world’s dominant global currency. The dollar became the conventional standard currency for international trade and debt financing. In 1999, a new currency was fashioned with the advent of the European Union (EU).  The euro is now being touted as the ultimate replacement of the U.S. dollar as the premier monetary unit. With the growth of the EU, the euro is considered to have the foundation and backing to continue to grow and attain supremacy as the global currency.  After a shaky start, the euro has rallied and established itself as a stable global currency.  Still the euro faces several unique, methodical challenges to its long-term success.  One overriding concern is the political volatility that threatens the compatibility within certain euro zone nations.  However, the conglomeration of nations in the EU also provides ample influence and more than enough capital to remain a major player in the world’s financial landscape for decades to come.  Will the euro realize its potential; will the euro supplant the dollar as the principal international currency?  The study explores published works since the creation of the euro to analyze the prospects for the future preeminent currency.  The euro was adopted a decade ago.  The creation of a general currency represented the result of years of efforts by numerous European nations.  Abandoning their national currencies in order to achieve the long-range goals of the member nations was a major political achievement. The unification of 11 national financial forces into one force was guaranteed to create waves in the international economy. The EU crafted a monetary standardization which leveraged and expanded the member countries’ clout.


Analysing the Impact of International Stock Markets and Macroeconomic Variables on the Thai Stock Market

Dr. Abbas Valadkhani, University of Wollongong, Australia

Surachai Chancharat, Khon Kaen University, Thailand

Charles Havie, University of Wollongong, Australia



The paper analyses the effect of various international stock market price indices and some relevant macroeconomic variables on the Thai stock market price index, using a GARCH-M model and monthly data from January 1988 to December 2004. It is found that, inter alia, that (a) changes in stock market returns in Singapore, Malaysia and Indonesia in the pre-1997 Asian crisis, and changes in Singapore, the Philippines and Korea in the post-1997 era instantaneously  influenced returns in the Thai stock market; (b) changes in the price of crude oil negatively impacted on the Thai stock market only in the pre-Asian crisis period; (c) volatility clustering (i.e. ARCH and GARCH effects) as well as a GARCH-M model were statistically significant only in the pre-1997 era; and (d) stock markets outside the region had no significant immediate impact on monthly aggregate returns in the Thai stock market.  Stock market volatility appears now to move rapidly across countries. This has been possibly affected by the liberalization of capital markets in the past two decades. A clearer understanding of stock market determinants is very important for investors, regulators and academic researchers. Therefore, increased knowledge of stock market determinants is necessary in the settlement of pricing, hedging and regulatory policy. A number of analysts have investigated the impact of macroeconomic variables and international linkages on stock returns. Most of these studies, however, have focused on developed markets by using the Autoregressive Conditional Heteroscedasticity (ARCH) model and the Generalized ARCH (GARCH) model. For instance, Schwert (1989) and Flannery and Protopapadakis (2002) tested the effect of domestic macroeconomic variables on stock volatility for the United States.


China’s Entry into the WTO: Is It a Good Deal or a False Promise for US and Chinese Workers?

Dr. Ki Hee Kim, William Paterson University, Wayne, NJ



 China’s entry into the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 was a landmark event in the bilateral trade relationship between China and the United States. China’s entry agreement mandated market openings and other reforms that have significantly opened its economy to US exports and investment. China is now the fourth-largest market for US exports, compared with its position as ninth-largest at the time of WTO entry, and is our third-largest market if combined with Hong Kong (The US-China Business Council, 2008). Mr. Clinton argues that US exports to China now support hundreds of thousands of American jobs and that these figures can grow substantially with the new access to the Chinese market the WTO agreement creates (Scott, 2000). These claims are misleading. The growth of U.S. trade with China since China entered the World Trade Organization (WTO) in 2001 has had a devastating effect on U.S. workers and the domestic economy (Tasina, 2008). The Economic Policy Institute (EPI) calculates the job losses based on a model that determines the number of jobs displaced for each billion dollar’s worth of trade imbalance with China. While it is true that exports support jobs in the United States, it is equally true that imports displace jobs (The EPI Study, 2008). The growing U.S. trade deficit with China has displaced huge numbers of jobs in the United States, and has been a prime contributor to the crisis in manufacturing employment over the past six years. The number of job opportunities lost each year grew rapidly during the 1990s and accelerated after China entered the WTO in 2001.


Selection of the Optimal Portfolio by Multicriterial Model using Industry and Company Evaluation

Dr. Zoran Babic, University of Split, Croatia

Branka Marasovic, University of Split, Croatia

Dr. Neli Tomic-Plazibat, University of Split, Croatia



 This paper presents a Two-step model for selection of the optimal portfolio. In the first step of portfolio optimization we evaluate the industries to which the stocks belong. Evaluation of industries is carried out by a multicriteria model and the obtained result is the share of each industry in the optimal portfolio. Having conducted industry evaluation, in the second step of model optimization we evaluate the stocks within each single industry by multicriteria model and define the share of each company stock in the industry portfolio. Finally, based on the shares of industries in the portfolio calculated in the first step and the shares of company stock in the single industry portfolio calculated in the second step, we determine the share of each company stock in the total portfolio.  The contribution of this model is in the possibility to select the criteria characteristic for a particular industry, which are non-existent in other industries and are unavoidable for evaluation of company stocks in that particular industry. Another contribution of this model is in the possibility to evaluate stocks by criteria whose mean values are different in different industries while avoiding mistakes occurring just because of different criteria mean values for a particular industry. The multicriterial method applied in this paper is based on the PROMETHEE approach [4]. The selected model has been applied in Zagreb Stock Exchange (ZSE) as a real case.  In 1952 H. M. Markowitz developed the first model for portfolio optimization and with that model he placed foundation of the modern portfolio theory. His model is based upon only two criteria: return and risk. The risk is measured by the variance of returns’ distribution.


Can a State Funded Rural Economic Development Program Positively Impact the State’s Economy? 

A Case Study Application using 2007 Texas Department of Agriculture’s Rural

Tourism Economic Development Program

Dr. Roger Hanagriff, Texas A&M Kingsville, TX

Dr. Marcy Beverly, Sam Houston State University, TX

Dr. Michael Lau, Sam Houston State University, TX



 In this paper, we review the tourism impact from supported tourism events and measure their economic value to the local economy.  The economic values are the result of visitor spending and when extrapolated to total event attendance creates economic values from the state-supported event.  Communities receiving funding were responsible for collecting visitor surveys to measure consumer spending, and to record the investment cost of the event.  The results were that state support represented 14 percent of the total event investment and total event value from visitor spending was $7.8 million for 31 events.  The state percent share in value represented $1.1 million and considering the program expended funds of $147,276 there is a $7.50 return for every $1 of state funding.  Economic impacts from the funds add additional value and measure total economic value to Texas.  We conclude that state supported programs focusing in the area of partial marketing support can create positive return on investment value of state funding.  The GO TEXAN Rural Community Program, formally Texas Yes! Hometown STARS program was developed to assist rural communities in advertising rural events, which leads to rural economic development.  The program’s focus on developing rural tourism is a state program that is supported by a review of literature. The program is a competitive dollar-for-dollar matching reimbursement program open to community members, which are required to join TDA’s (Texas Department of Agriculture) GO TEXAN program.  The program will reimburse communities for half of their promotional costs.  Eligible communities apply for the funds by submitting a tourism event promotion proposal to TDA.  Matching reimbursement funds can be used to offset the costs of the following materials and services to directly promote rural tourism events:


Strategic Control of Parent Companies, Commitments to Multiple Parties, and Intention to

Implement Strategy: The Case of International Joint Ventures in Indonesia

Syukri Lukman, Ph.D., Universitas Andalas Padang, Indonesia



 This study seeks to investigate the relationship between the strategic control of parent companies and the management team’s intention to implement a strategy of international joint ventures (IJVs) in Indonesia. The influence of management teams’ commitment to multiple parties as mediators in the hypothesized relationship is also examined.  Using a sample of 113 IJVs, the statistical analyses show that most of the hypotheses are supported.  The finding showed that the strategic control of parents does not directly influence the intention to implement strategy in IJVs, but does so indirectly through commitment to multiple parties in which the management team commitment to foreign parent companies and commitment to IJV itself have role significant than commitment to local parent companies and commitment to team. Implications, limitations, and suggestions for future research are presented.  The globalization of businesses has created the need for many companies to collaborate and form strategic alliances. Kenichi Ohmae (1989, p.144) stipulated that “no company can stay competitive in the world today single-handedly.” In other words, for firms to remain competitive in their business operations abroad, they have to create strategic alliances. International joint venture (IJV) is one of the most frequently utilized forms of international cooperative arrangements. While a domestic joint venture operates like a stand-alone firm in engaging in all different types of regular business activity and external relationships, similar to that of any independent firm, an IJV is more complex than a single organization since it involves multiple internal inter-organizational linkages (Yan & Luo, 2001). In managing an IJV, managers must have a “dual commitment” because an IJV grows from two or more parent companies with shared ownership, resources, and strategic decision-making processes.


Classification of Insurance Companies in Turkey

Dr. Nursel Selver Ruzgar, Marmara University, Istanbul, Turkey



 This paper presents a comparative study of the use of three different methods of data analysis on a common set of data. To investigate the comparative performance of these methods, discriminant analysis, logistic regression analysis and Rough set approximations, were applied to 24 non-life insurance companies in Turkey for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006. These companies were grouped as successful or unsuccessful according to geometric means of their total policy numbers and total premium products. The results indicate that predictions with the estimated logistic functions and   the estimated discriminant functions obtained for the years 2004, 2005 and 2006 give identical values when compared with the actual values. While logistic regression analysis and discriminant analysis classified non-life insurance companies, Rough set approximation determined which policies have affected the classification procedures.  Classification of data or the assignment of a set of alternatives into predefined homogenous classes in mathematical models constitutes a very important part of the statistical analysis. Most of the existing classification methodologies are based on absolute comparisons among the alternatives and some reference profiles (cut-off points) that discriminate the classes (Doumpos and Zopounidis, 2004). These techniques based on traditional statistical approaches include discriminant function analysis (DA) and logistic regression (LR) (Hair et al, 1998) among others.  DA is a classical multivariate technique concerned with separating distinct set of objects and allocating new objects to previously defined groups.  It has many restrictive conditions including multivariate normality, and equality of covariate matrix. If these conditions are violated the result may be questionable. DA is used to determine which variables disriminate between two or more existing groups.


Virtual Work and Its Challenges and Types

Gerda Mihhailova, University of Tartu, Estonia

Kandela Oun, University of Tartu, Estonia

Kulno Turk, Ph.D., University of Tartu, Estonia



 Research on virtual work is usually based on case studies, interviews or on some other small sample methods that affect results and allow limited conclusions. Current article is based on data gathered from 323 organizations. As use of ICT is one of the main characteristics of virtual work, the study concentrates on issues related to ICT-mediated communication for co-operation purposes. The results of the survey show that virtual work is used relatively often, but management techniques tend to suit better for ordinary work arrangements. The article’s novelty and theoretical contribution stems from presenting the results in a new model that uses virtuality as bases for drawing a typology of virtual work.  Relatively recent developments in the field of information and communication technology (ICT) have enabled the organizations to start using virtual teams. Virtual teams have been defined as: “…groups of workers with unique skills, who often reside in different geographical places and who have to use for co-operation means of ICT in order to span the boundaries of time and space (Kirkman, Mathieu 2004)”. Virtual work is a broader term that can mean many types of new work forms, e.g. virtual teamwork, hot-desking, work from a satellite office, tele-commuting etc. Over the past 10-15 years, literature on the specifics of these new work forms has emerged, but as for any new phenomena, the articles tend to be descriptive and lack empirical research. Even when empirically researched, only a small sample (mostly case studies) is used in most cases.


A Business Case Study - The University Bookstore Limited

Dr. Zorah Abu Kassim, Universiti Malaysia Sarawak, Malaysia

Darshan Singh, Universiti Teknologi MARA, Malaysia



 A University Co-operative with 6 store outlets finds that even though sales are rising, dividends to members are not increasing correspondingly. The main issue identified as the cause of the problem lies in the downward trend of sales of the grocery store outlet.  As a result, the grocery store is draining the profits of the overall organization. Financial data were collected from annual reports and published documents. Additionally, interviews were held to gain insight into causes for the declining sales of the grocery store. Increasing competition, bad location, high overheads, unprofessional management were identified as some of the causes .A SWOT analysis is conducted to gain insights on recommendations to be forwarded to  management. The management of the Co-op therefore, has come to a crossroads. Should they continue to operate the grocery store or should they close it down?  The top management of the University Co-op is perplexed. Sales and profits of the Co-op have been rising from the year 1996 to 2002.  Yet, the University Co-op grocery store located in the campus was consistently losing money over the years.  For year 2002, there are 11 public universities, 5 private universities.  11 polytechnics and 3 branch campuses (Eighth Malaysian Plan, 2001-2005). In Malaysia, public universities are normally funded by the government or public funded while private universities are funded by fee paying students Majority of students studying in public universities get a scholarship or student loan to subsidize their studies. Student fees are usually much lower in public universities than in private universities. Private universities in Malaysia are sometimes funded by private corporations like Tenaga Nasional (National Electricity Company) and Telekoms Malaysia Berhad (National Telecommunication Company). Enrollment of students for their first degrees in public universities have increased dramatically from 170,794 students to 212, 326 students (Eight Malaysia Plan, 2001-2005)


What's in a Name?  A Research Model to Explore the Community Impact of a Nonprofit Organization's Name and Identify Name-Change Opportunities

Dr. Amy Handlin, Monmouth University, West Long Branch, NJ



 Nonprofit social service agencies have faced increasingly serious marketing challenges in recent years. The field has become so crowded that it is difficult for new or regional agencies to compete -- for both donors and contracts -- with established agencies, especially those that have a national presence. In working with new and regional agencies, the author has found that changing the name of a struggling entity can be an effective tool to help strengthen its positioning in the marketplace. Positioning, according to the classic theorists Ries and Trout (1986), is "not to create something new and different, but to manipulate what's already up there in the mind, to retie the connections that already exist."  The purpose of this paper is to suggest a research protocol that can be readily adapted by agencies to evaluate the possible positioning benefits of a name change.  Traditionally, nonprofits try to solve marketing problems one at a time, instead of thinking about each issue in relationship to others. This tendency is a consequence of limited time, resources, and in-house expertise. For example, a drop in attendance at a museum exhibit might bring about a push for more publicity for that exhibit -- but not a comprehensive look at competitor museums. Poor utilization of a public health clinic might be attributed solely to its location, without considering the reputation of its parent agency.


Reflections on Exhibiting Multicultural Fluency in the Modern Classroom

Thomas Clark, Ph.D., Professor, Xavier University

Julie Stewart, M.A., Doctoral Candidate, University of Cincinnati



 This paper describes the benefits of business teachers interacting with their liberal arts colleagues to gain a better understanding of how to incorporate recent advances in multicultural learning into their pedagogy. It particularly focuses on helping students become aware of the impact of electronic media on their ability to think deeply and thoughtfully.  Xavier University conducts an annual summer program, The Multicultural Fluency Institute, for faculty across fields to share best practices, with a focus on understanding how to teach an increasingly multicultural student body more effectively. My goal in attending as a Management and Entrepreneurial Studies teacher was to improve my ability to understand how current thinking about diversity impacts the way students communicate when they write and speak in their personal and professional lives.  I found the workshop, by exposing me to the best thinking of my colleagues in the liberal arts and social science colleges, increased my sensitivity to a variety of issues including disability, age, gender, religion, race, ethnicity, incarceration, sexual orientation, and addiction, each of which students have raised in class and in one-on-one office hours’ interaction, and, most importantly, to issues of adapting our pedagogy to the new realities of living in an age of instant electronic communication, where using processes that encourage in-depth thought and critical thinking skills may be giving way to more compelling, yet intellectually shallow, dependence on unreliable electronic sources, such as Wikipedia.


Economic Effect of Fairs – The Kava Model Approach

Dr. Laszlo Karpati,  University of Debrecen, Hungary

Dr. Andras Nabradi, University of Debrecen, Hungary

Dr. Zsolt Csapo, University of Debrecen, Hungary



 Complex economic evaluation of fairs / exhibitions can be considered as novelty in the literature. Each stakeholder group in connection with a fair is evaluated in numerical terms, taking into account the specific cash inflow and outflow categories of that group. The net cash flow is considered as economic value since it filters out the accumulations. Adding together all the categories, the so-called complex economic value and effectiveness is established regarding the surveyed fair. A numerical model titled: KAVA was elaborated to carry out the calculations for the complex economic effectiveness of the fair. Practical example of using the model is also shown in the paper.  Fairs and exhibitions can be considered as one of the oldest means of marketing, looking back to several thousand years’ past. A lot of authors dealt with evaluation of these events, examining them from several viewpoints. Those evaluations, however, did not reach a level where the fair / exhibition were evaluated from economic viewpoint, complex way and together with its environment / region / settlement. In this article authors present a model that gives answers to the questions above, in complex way and by numeric figures regarding the economic effectiveness of a fair. The acronym of the elaborated model is KAVA. In this paper the authors present the theoretical approach of the KAVA model and one practical example.  A lot of publications dealt with evaluation of different effects of fairs / exhibitions in marketing literature. Those publications’ approach is mainly qualitative, but sometimes quantitative, too. The main characteristics of the existing publications are that they investigate one or more from the stakeholders of fairs and generally do not analyze them together with the fair and its environment / region / settlement. The publications cited below, however, give invaluable components for creating a complex model since different approaches of authors can be incorporated into the model.


Competitive Advantage, Value Creation and du Pont Identity

Dr. Fen-may Liou, Yuanpei University, Shin-chu, Taiwan

Dr. Eing-chan Tang, National Chiao Tung University, Taipei, Taiwan



 Much of the strategic research work defines competitive advantage as invisible resource bundles and/or the tacit capabilities of the firm, and suggests that such bundles of resources provide a competitive advantage or affect long-run firm performance. The problem is that resource and activity bundles are hard to reveal and very difficult to test. We propose that a firm’s competitive advantage can be inferred by financial performance. Thus through the segregation of the components of the financial performance we can investigate the competitive heterogeneity within industry. The present study presents that the du Pont identity of financial return is consistent with the concept of the competitive advantage in terms of value creation. The ten financial indicators derived from the expanded du Pont identity are used to investigate the source of the competitive advantage of the worldwide semiconductor industry.  Much of strategic research has focused on resource and capability bundles as the sources of the competitive advantage. The problem is that resource and activity bundles are notoriously hard to dismantle since they include complex linkages, complementarities (Milgrom and Roberts, 1990; 1995) and tacit dimensions (Nelson and Winter, 1982; Reed and DeFllippi 1990). By promoting inductive Bayesian interpretation of the sustainable competitive advantage proposition, we (2008) proposed that “a firm’s competitive advantage, resource bundle configuration, and dynamic learning capability cannot be comprehended by outsiders. Its operational performance, however, can be captured by financial indicators.” From this viewpoint, the presence or absence of competitive advantage may be reflected in the causal relationship between resource configuration, dynamic capability and observable financial performance.


Understanding the Decline in Japanese Tourist Arrivals to Hawaii from 1998 to 2007: A Macroeconomic Perspective

Dr. Larson Ng, University of Hawaii at Manoa, Honolulu, Hawaii



 Hawaii has historically been known as one of the top tourist destinations in the world. However, beginning in 1998, Japanese tourist arrivals to Hawaii began a negative trend, whose soon-to-be-realized long-term effects will only add to the mounting economic troubles facing Hawaii, since the global financial crises in 2008. In an effort to provide a macroeconomic perspective to assist with the state’s recovery attempts, this study researched the role of income, price, substitute price, and the exchange rate in Japanese tourist arrivals to Hawaii during its predominant period of decline from 1998 to 2007. Utilizing the Japanese Real GDP (i.e., income), the Honolulu CPI (i.e., price), and the Australian CPI (i.e., substitute price) as research variable proxies, along with the Japan-US exchange rate, a macroeconomic factor contribution analysis was conducted to discover the most positive, most negative, and least influential macroeconomic demand determinant during this period. Based on the study findings, the Japanese Real GDP (i.e., income) was the most positive, the Australian CPI (i.e., substitute price) was the most negative, and the Japan-US exchange rate was the least influential macroeconomic demand determinant, respectively, that contributed to Japanese tourist arrivals to Hawaii from 1998 to 2007.  According to Hawaii’s State Department of Business, Economic Development and Tourism, tourism is the one commerce activity that greatly contributes to Hawaii’s economic base (Hawaii Department of Business, n.d.a). One of the most important sources of travelers to Hawaii is Japan. Prior to 1998, Japanese tourist arrivals to Hawaii enjoyed a nearly uninterrupted trend of growth.


The Model of Corporate Environmentalism: the Effects of Perceived Market Uncertainty upon Marketing, Environmental, and Social Performance

Apichart Kanarattanavong, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Dr. Guntalee Ruenrom, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand



 Corporate environmentalism (CE) reflects the degree of integration of natural environmental issues into firms’ strategic decisions.  This paper investigates two specific sources of perceived uncertainty (i.e., the perceived uncertainty of the environmental market and environmental regulation) and their effects on the CE. The perceived uncertainty of the environmental market and environmental regulation is proposed to have a main effect on CE, a moderating effect on the relationship between the resources and capabilities of firms and CE, and a simultaneous effect (the main and moderating effects).  The study also examines the consequences of CE. It proposes that CE positively influences the marketing, environmental, and social performance of firms. Theoretical, managerial and governmental contributions are also discussed.  Research on corporate environmentalism (CE) has adopted various theoretical perspectives to identify the antecedents of CE (i.e. the political economy perspective, stakeholder theory, the resource-based view, institutional theory, and/or a combination of two or more of the above). This current study takes a different approach by adopting marketing strategy formation: Varadarajan and Jayachandran (1999) argued that a strategy and its performance outcomes are influenced by the external and internal environments of firms. Adopting the approach of identifying antecedents of CE has several advantages.


Re-examining Causal Relationship between Stock Prices and fundamentals: Evidence based on Dynamic Panel Data Model

Dr. Chin-Chia Liang, Dayeh University, Taiwan

Dr. Jin-Ming Liang, Hsing Kuo University of Management, Taiwan




 In this paper we investigate the causality relationship between stock prices and three key fundamentals including consumer price index, real gross domestic product and one-year maturity government bond yield as a proxy of interest rates in G-7 are sourced from DataStream. With the base year of 2000, all quarterly data spanning over 1998:Q1 - 2007:Q4 are surveyed, and all the variables including interest rates (here, one plus interest rate used) are in natural logarithm form. We employ the GMM-SYS approach for the estimation of the panel VAR model. Afterwards, the causal relation relationship between stock prices and some selected macroeconomic variables is tested and ascertained. We may conclude in the G7, empirical evidence indicates a uni-directional causality running from consumer price index to real gross domestic product. On the other hand, there exists evidence a bi-directional causality running from stock prices to interest rates, from real gross domestic product to stock prices and from consumer price index to stock prices.  Based on the dynamic panel data (DPD) model, these uni-directional and bi-directional causalities give important implications for policy makers of these governments.  The increased trend of international capital movements across countries accompanied by deregulation of trading stocks allowed much more investors with dominant information for seeking profitable opportunities in global stock markets. Furthermore, an aggressive interaction of monetary policy and integration of currency traded for financial assets in the markets of major industrial countries have facilitated international funds and useful information to go into the stock markets since the European Monetary System was established in 1999.


The Empirical Study of the Impact of Product Innovation Factors on the Performance of New Products:

Radical and Incremental Product Innovation

Danupol Hoonsopon, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand

Dr. Guntalee Ruenrom, Chulalongkorn University, Bangkok, Thailand



 Innovation strategy is an important factor that helps firms to cope with the pressure from several business environments and increase their performance. This study aims to identify what factors impacted each type of product innovation. The proposed framework demonstrates product innovation factors, radical and incremental product innovation, and performance which are antecedence, mediator, and consequence, respectively.  In the present day, many firms encounter competitive pressures such as demand uncertainty, technological turbulence, and economic (Cooper (2000) and Zhou, Yim, and Tse (2005)). In strategic management, firm performance is determined by the strategic position of a firm that matches the characteristics of the marketplace and the environment (Narver and Slater, 1990). Innovation strategy is one of the important factors which help firms cope with pressure from several business environments (Ziamou and Ratneshwar (2003) and increase their sales, profits, and competitive strength (Govindarajan and Kopalle, 2006). Nevertheless, the rate of new products that fail is high (Goldenberg, Lehmann, and Mazursky, 2001). The reasons for failure are either that new products may not serve the needs of the customers (Zirger and Maidique, 1990) or the cost of the new products is higher than the sales of the new products (Goldenberg, Lehmann, and Mazursky, 2001). Therefore, firms must find the most appropriate way to develop new products to handle these situations.


Effects of Performance Management and Incentive Allocation on Development of Thai Public Services and Officers

Dr. Kalayanee Koonmee, National Institute of Development Administration, Thailand



 The Public Sector Development Commission implemented a performance management system comprised of goal setting, performance appraisal, and incentives for performance in 2004. The ultimate objective was to improve the ability and standard of Thai public services and to continually improve the efficiency of Thai public officers. This study aims to investigate the effects of this performance management system during the period 2004-2007, and to give some recommendations on how to improve the system. The research methodology includes both secondary and primary data collection. In-depth primary data is obtained from interviewing top management and concerned officers from 20 selected units; broad primary data is obtained from questionnaires. There are two groups of respondents - management and staff. They are stratified using multi-stage sampling with a 37.1% response rate from management and 59.31% from staff. The findings are: (1) Both goal setting and performance appraisal, at almost equal levels, have a significant effect on the efficiency and effectiveness of both units and individuals. The effect on units is higher than the effect on individuals. (2) The effects of incentives vary between the two methods. Equal results for usefulness and not-usefulness to public sector development from the interview study, and some effect to public sector development (increasing unit efficiency, and employee satisfaction leading to efficient and quality working improvement) from the survey study, with more effect on organizations and units than individuals. Some management recommendations are also included in this research.


The Investment Development Path Hypothesis - A Panel Data Approach for Portugal and the Cohesion Countries, 1990-2007

Miguel Fonseca, Faculdade De Economia Da Universidade Do Porto

Antonio Mendonca, Instituto Superior De Economia E Gestão / Universidade Técnica De Lisboa

Jose Passos, Instituto Superior De Economia E Gestão / Universidade Técnica De Lisboa



 Looking at the transformations that took place in the world economy in the last quarter of the 20th century, as a result of liberalization, deregulation and market opening process, one of the most striking features was the emergence of multinational enterprises (MNEs) in all sectors and countries of the world. Consequently, the Foreign Direct Investment (FDI) flows promoted by these firms have grown significantly, even faster than world trade and world output, in the same period.  In this context, our analysis is based on the Investment Development Path (IDP) theory, according to which the inward and outward investment position of a country is tied with its economic development. In the present research, this hypothesis is estimated empirically for Portugal and other 24 countries in different stages of development, between 1990 and 2007, particularly comparing the Portuguese positioning on IDP with the other cohesion countries. Generally, our results find support for IDP paradigm, although it is impossible to capture all the stages predicted theoretically, given the lack of heterogeneity between the most countries of our sample and also the relatively short time period considered The main purpose of this paper is to analyse the Net Outward Investment (NOI) position of Portugal, in the period 1990-2007 at an aggregate level. We have as methodological reference the Investment Development Path hypothesis, according to which the Foreign Direct Investment develops through a path that expresses a dynamic and intertemporal relationship between an economy’s level of development, proxied by the Gross Domestic Product (GDP) or GDP per capita, and the country's NOI position, defined as the difference between outward direct investment stock and inward direct investment stock.


The Convergence Analysis of Inflation and Unemployment Rates

Snjezana Pivac, Ph.D., University of Split, Croatia

Zdravka Aljinovic, Ph.D., University of Split, Croatia

Maja Ivcevic, University of Split, Croatia



 In the paper the time paths of the Croatian rates of inflation and unemployment are estimated. The model is based on three first-order differential i.e. difference equations and on the adaptive expectation hypothesis, what results with second-order differential i.e. difference equations for each variable. The data of the rate of inflation and the rate of unemployment are used for parameters estimation, while the expected rate of inflation are estimated by VAR model. The parameters of adaptive-expectations equations are estimated by standard methods. On the basis of the estimated time paths the stability and convergence analysis is done for the rate of inflation and the unemployment rate.  The main aim of the paper is to estimate the expectation of the rate of inflation and the unemployment rate in Croatia using mathematical model based on the system of differential i.e. difference equations. The paper is organized in five sections. After this introductory section, in the second section the mathematical model is presented. The basic framework is taken from (Chiang, 1984) where the resulting equations are achieved according to the three differential/difference equations describing inflation-unemployment interaction. In this paper, in discrete form of the model, instead of monetary policy equation based on the rate of inflation from forward periods, the latter equation is based on the current rate of inflation. That implies new form of the resulting second order difference equation in the rate of inflation and the unemployment rate. The third section uses statistical-econometric methods for the parameters estimation from the previously derived model. All approximations are done using the monthly data of the rate of inflation and the rate of unemployment in Croatia in period from 1998 to 2008.


Impact of Employees’ Social Characteristics on Companies’ Performance: Case of Croatia

Ivana Tadic, University of Split, Croatia

Zeljana Aljinovic Barac, Ph.D., University of Split, Croatia



 Different researches from the human resource management showed that human resource practices had strong and positive impact on financial and productivity performance of different companies. The aim of this paper is to provide empirical evidence concerning impacts of human resource investments, more precisely vocational education and career development on companies’ financial performances. Verification of empirical evidence will be provided through the sample of Croatian labour intensive companies. All variables that will be used in this research will be based on previous researches on the similar topic, but also chosen according to the specificity of Croatia, as well as to the possibility of their implementation. The results of research confirm positive correlation between employees’ social characteristics and companies’ performance in Croatia.  Contemporary human resource management has been changed from its traditional perspectives till nowadays. In the past, companies have not been disposed to human resource management, but to personnel management, which just included administrative practices regarding their employees. On the other hand, companies’ exposure to constant changes compelled them to develop the scope of its departments in order to achieve greater organisational success, which resulted with human resource departments. Companies, today, are aware of the fact that among all sets of assets, the “soft” one, meaning human resources, represent the key factor for organisational success.


The Marketing Plan Evolved: E2B Projects

Stacy M.P. Schmidt, Ed.D., California State University, Bakersfield

David L. Ralph, Ph.D., Pepperdine University

John E. Richardson, Ph.D., Pepperdine University



 The evolution of the business class has led to many innovations in learning and student engagement.  The journey of the business class is the Lecture, the Case Study, the Hypothetical Business Plan, the Real Business Plan, to the Education to Business (E2B) project.  As the class has evolved the old has not just been discarded for the new but has been complimented or altered to improve learning.  The lecture provides a means for students to learn vital information about business.  Professors, especially ones with real life experience, can relay this information to the students through discussion and examples.  By introducing case studies into the classrooms students are able to gain more insight and hands on experience with the material.  Case studies provide an opportunity to practice applying key concepts.  Different courses have implemented variances of the Business Plan.  In our study, we examined Marketing Courses that incorporated Marketing plans.  The hypothetical marketing plan involved a marketing plan based often on real company but not with all of the real data required to do an actual real plan.  Thus, it is has the actual components of a marketing plan but they are not implementable.  The real world marketing plan is similar to the prior plan but that it requires students to work with a real company on a real plan that could actually be implemented.  This provides an opportunity for students to get hands on experience with an actual business.  Furthermore, this marketing plan integrates the theory with the application in a means that engages students and improve their retention.


Overcoming Economic Crisis in Romania

Dr. Cosmin Joldes, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania

Dr. Alexandra Horobet, Academy of Economic Studies, Bucharest, Romania



 Everybody feels the general tendency of pessimism regarding the future economic perspectives of the global economy. What began as turmoil generated by the bursting of the US real estate bubble and the sub-prime credit crisis induced losses in the summer of 2007 and turned into a financial crisis prompted by the Lehman Brothers bankruptcy at the end of 2008. Managing through crisis may be one of the most challenging activities in a manager’s lifetime. All the past managerial rules may be with no more value in turbulent times, the new rules occur. In times of turmoil, lots of opportunities abound. But taking advantage of them will require fast reflexes, an aggressive attitude, and serious changes to the companies’ status quo. Our paper explores the way that international economic crisis is perceived in Romania and how it may affect the companies. As an eloquent example for this framework we focus by the end of the paper to the Romanian banking facing crisis times.  Researches show that many successful companies were born in a time when people through the world were falling apart. Carnegies Steel and Hewlett-Packard are only two of them. Business history tells that Andrew Carnegie launched his first steel mill during the Panic of 1873, the start of a ling depression. The businessman took advantage of low costs to build an industrial giant that made him the world’s richest man. In the same time, Bill Hewlett and Dave Packard showed similar courage when they launched HP from a Californian garage toward the end of Great Depression. History showed that crisis breeds always opportunities. Business leaders may have to cut costs to survive 2009, but the smart ones are looking for business prospects within this year, thinking to develop their business.


Variables Associated with Effective Management of the Multi-Channel Delivery of Public Services

Dr. Elizabeth Posada, Université du Québec à Montreal, Montreal, Canada

Dr. Yves-Chantal Gagnon, École nationale d’administration publique, Montreal, Canada

Dr. Mario Bourgault, École Polytechnique, Montreal, Canada



 The strategic challenge today of all public administrations is effectively providing their services via many channels: in person (counter), mail, telephone, Internet, text, television, etc. Performance should be measured both in terms of customer, citizen or company satisfaction, and minimum cost for providing these services.  It becomes increasingly necessary to design a model to appropriately manage this new reality. For this purpose, a field study, based on case studies, was conducted to better understand the process for developing and managing the multi-channel delivery of public services, and, more specifically, to identify the variables associated with its effectiveness (performance). This paper presents these variables briefly, going into more detail about the pivotal variable of vision, specifically looking at the elements essential for guiding management.  The strategic challenge today for all companies and public administrations is the effective delivery of their services using many different channels. This performance can be measured in terms of both effectiveness and efficiency. In the first case, this means responding to increasingly specific needs, and fulfilling the ever-growing expectations of clients. In the second case, it must be done at the lowest cost possible, due to issues of company profitability and expenditure control, and the use of discretionary resources, which are becoming increasingly limited for the governments (Yang & Tho, 2007).


Cultural Influence on Loyalty Behaviors

Dr. Sungjip Nam, Chungbuk National University, S. Korea



 This article compares an individual’s loyalty activity engagement from a cross-cultural perspective. International Business and cultural literature suggest that scholarly findings from one culture may not be valid in other cultures due to cultural effects. The cultural differences between the Eastern and the Western worlds are especially pronounced. In this article, an individual’s WOM referral and re-purchase activity engagement are compared between American and Korean consumer groups. The motivation of comparing their behavioral differences is based on cultural literature.  Cross-cultural research on international marketing takes on a new importance as businesses expand their territory to other continents and countries. Hofstede (1983) argues that understanding different cultures is important because a culture is based upon political, sociological, and psychological values. Therefore, to know a region’s culture is to know its people’s consumer expectations and practices such as satisfaction or loyalty.  Recent service and relationship literature stresses the importance of the variables of customer satisfaction and customer loyalty and their relationships to profitability. Reichheld and Sasser (1990) emphasize the importance of customer loyalty in sharpening a firm’s competitive edge. Customer loyalty will eventually become visible in a company’s bottom line through increased revenue, decreased customer acquisition costs, reduced costs of serving repeat customers, and increased profits.


Tests of the Market Models: Evidence from the Thai Stock Market

Dr. Chaiporn Vithessonthi, Mahasarakham University, Thailand



 This paper investigates whether the explanatory power of the market model varies, depending on the length of the estimation period and the time period. For a set of resource firms listed on the Stock Exchange of Thailand between 2006 and 2008, I find that there is no significant difference in the explanatory power of the market models using the 240-day estimation period with respect to time period. However, I find that the explanatory power of the market models using the 120-day estimation period varies with respect to time period. Furthermore, the results suggest that there is a significant difference in the explanatory power of the market models using the 240-day estimation period and the market models using the 120-day estimation period. In some periods, the market model using the 240-day estimation period outperforms the market model using the 120-day estimation period, and vice versa.  The explanatory power of the return-generating models is of concern and important to academia and practitioners. For this reason, several aspects of the return-generating models (e.g., single-index models, multi-index models, Capital Asset Pricing Model, and Arbitrage Pricing Theory), has been empirically tested in numerous studies that have often offered mixed results  (Barone-Adesi and Talwar, 1992; Bey, 1983; Cable and Holland, 1999; Chang, 1991; Cochrane, 2005; Fama, 1980; Galagedera and Faff, 2005; Sharpe, 1964; Xiang, 1993). For instance, empirical research on the accuracy and stability of historical betas has been performed  (Alexander and Benson, 1982; Alexander and Chervany, 1980; Blume, 1970; Levy, 1971).

Consumption and Income in Greece 1960-1994.  Relationship Using Error Correction Model

Dr. Paraschos Maniatis, Athens University of Economics and Business



 Non-stationary behavior is typical in most economic and financial time series. There exist several ways to treat such series - investigation if the series can become stationary by differencing (stochastic stationary) or de-trending (trend stationary). However, a good approach is to check for cointegration. In the affirmative one has to build an error correction model (ECM) in order to correctly treat the relationship between the series. In this study we present the essentials of checking stationarity, cointegration and the ECM building. Then we apply the theoretical results to the case of relationship between national consumption and gross domestic product in Greece for the period 1960-1994. The findings do not reject the validity of an ECM for the given case.  The most economic and financial time series are non-stationary and, hence, regressions involving non-stationary series give spurious correlations and exaggerated results. Besides, the investigator cannot use the mathematical and statistical apparatus designated for stationary time series.  One possible approach would be to difference the time until they become stationary and then to use a VARMA model. Nevertheless, the VARMA models do not always lead to satisfactory results if the differencing order is not the same for all series or if the trend itself is of interest or if the non-stationarity of the series is of different character (some series are trend stationary and the other are stochastic stationary).


Characteristics and Marketing Elements Across Different Stages of the Life Cycle of Taiwanese Local Festivals

Yi Ming Tseng, Tamkang University, Taiwan



 This paper seeks to report the findings of a survey aimed at understanding the marketing elements for festival in different stages of the life cycle (LC), and explore the characteristics of the LC that practitioners can detect when the festival is proceeding. The results can be useful to marketers of the festival to anticipate the type of strategic ML in future and this in turn can help in planning activities of other art and creative industries in Taiwan. This study adds to the body of literature, which proposes to plan marketing and business strategies differently at the different LC stages of the festivals.  The economic pressure in Taiwan has led to intensive competition and shorter Festival life cycles. In such conditions to serve the needs of lower costs and higher participation, developments related to festival content and process improvements become crucial in success of any official and quasi official festival. The need for continuous changes in marketing elements is being felt by the marketers in these festivals, in order to obtain sustainable development and public preference through out the Festival.


Business Alliance & Partnership Performance and its Value Drivers: An Intellectual Capital Approach

Philip Vergauwen, Hasselt University, Belgium

Hanno Roberts, Norwegian School of Management, Norway

Sigrid Vandemaele, Hasselt University, Belgium



 This paper contributes to the field of alliance research by extending and testing the research framework of Moeller (2006) in a specific research setting. Singularly relating behavioral value drivers to financial performance of alliances ignores intangible performance components. This research shows that behavioral value drivers directly affect alliance performance and, additionally, indirectly affect intangible performance. The direct relationship to tangible performance is found to be positively significant for six value drivers: trust, commitment, open communication, strategic interdependence, participation, and coordination of work. The only variable not being significant is the one of symmetry.  The indirect relationship by means of intangible performance shows a positive effect of the value drivers of open communication, strategic interdependence, participation, and coordination of work. Overall, symmetry does not have any impact on performance. The closely related drivers of trust and of commitment are important for the overall performance of business partnerships but do not increase the performance of specific intangible components.  Business alliances and partnerships have become increasingly important over the last decades. In fact, Anand & Khanna (2000) reported 20,000 new alliances worldwide in the two-year period of 1998-2000. However, the high popularity of alliances is connected to an equally high failure rate. Long-term successful alliances are rare, with reported failure rates of around 55% after one year and a further increase over time (Kogut, 1989). A multitude of problems, can lead to a breakdown of the inter-firm co-operation. For instance, the inappropriate choice of governance structures (Williamson, 1985), the incompatibility of corporate cultures and systems (Kale, Singh & Perlmutter, 2000), and the lack of trust (Arino & De la Torre, 1998) are reported as reasons of failure.


Instinct in Organisational Research: Putting it back on the Agenda

Geoffrey Ross Chapman, Centre for Industry and Innovation Studies, University of Western Sydney, Penrith South, NSW

Dr. Ann Dadich, Centre for Industry and Innovation Studies, University of Western Sydney, Penrith South, NSW



 Although theoretical and empirical understandings of instinct have changed extensively, these have been largely overshadowed by cognitive psychology. Consequently, the role of instinct within organisations remains under-researched and poorly understood. The recent rise of evolutionary psychology, and its focus on universal mechanisms of behaviour, suggests an opportune time to explore this connection. Following an overview of human instinct, this paper argues that instinct research might enhance current understandings of organisational and workplace practices. By understanding human instinct, there is potential to significantly increase the level of effective communication within the workplace, which may lead to improved morale and productivity. The paper concludes with a discussion of implications for future research.  To understand human activity, research in organisational psychology has largely focused on behaviour and cognition, much to the neglect of instinct. Consequently, contemporary understandings of workplace practices do not consider the role of innate drives and as such, are not necessarily well-informed   (Markóczy & Goldberg, 1998). This conceptual paper addresses this imbalance. Through a discussion of instinct, its theoretical understandings, and its recent return through evolutionary psychology, this paper establishes the potential role of instinct in organisational psychology. Additionally, several possible directions that future research could explore are suggested, highlighting the diversity and value that this area of research offers.


 Recommendation for Remuneration in Croatian Company Law and Corporate Governance

Dr. Hana Horak, University of Zagreb, Croatia

Kosjenka Dumancic, University of Zagreb, Croatia



 Corporate governance in Croatia has gained in its significance in the past few years, and Croatia has made a significant progress in developing the capital market which is to promote trade and good corporate governance. In the light of further developing the Croatian financial market, company law  and corporate governance  there  was a need to harmonize and develop further with the instruments of the soft law as it was recommended by the EC Commission in the field of directors remuneration and independence.Latest changes of legislation governing the company law introduced monistic system into Croatian legislation. This also represents continuous harmonization of Croatian Company law with legal acquis of EU. Croatian company law is in constant modernization and harmonization since 1993 and adoption of the Companies Act. While there is now a possibility to organize management board in accordance with one tier or two tier system of corporate governance, and there is an obvious difference between the role of directors in two systems regarding their obligations, it was necessary to adopt two kind of recommendations. Croatian Association of the members of supervisory and management board adopted in September 2008 Croatian Recommendation on remuneration. In the article the authors represent the Recommendations, goals and aims of implementation as an instrument of soft law in Croatian law and practice.


FINALIST - Financial Literacy Stimulation:  The Case Study of Cyprus

Dr. Maria Michailidis, University of Nicosia, Nicosia, Cyprus

Dr. Skevos Evripidou, University of Cyprus, Nicosia, Cyprus

Dr. Joseph Hassid, University of Piraeus, Piraeus, Greece



 The main findings of the survey in economic/financial literacy stimulation have shown that, it is an absolute necessity to create educational and training programs related to the multiple economic/financial factors which influence us in our daily lives.  These educational programs should target younger as well as older individuals, both males and females.  They should give more emphasis on the female population and on younger groups, who appeared to be in greater need for developing more awareness related to the global and local economic and financial problems, and for acquiring and further improving key competences in financial awareness. In this way we develop more educated consumers, who are more capable of taking the right economic and financial decisions, and thus actively participating in the economic and financial development of Cyprus.  The present paper is part of an extended report of a consortium of counties participating in the GRUNDTVIG Multilateral Project titled FINALIST.  This is part of the European Union, Life Long Learning Programs.  Participating countries are: Greece, Germany, Bulgaria, France and Cyprus.  The questionnaires used were uniform for all countries, (with the exemption of some country specific questions).  The questionnaires were also translated in each country’s language.  This paper refers only to the questionnaires administered in Cyprus, and it does not attempt to present a full accounting of the existing financial educational needs of the other partners of the consortium, a task which is beyond the scope of this paper.   This piece of research work is the first of its kind for Cyprus and one of the few done internationally with attempts to comparing situations in several/different, in many respects, countries.


The Pivotal Role of Trust in Customer Loyalty: Empirical Research on the System Integration Market in Taiwan

Nelson N. H. Liao, Chihlee Institute of Technology, Taipei, Taiwan

Tsui- chih Wu, Shih Chien University, Taipei, Taiwan



 The paper uses the model of Harris and Goode (2004) and samples the business customers of one system integration provider in Taiwan to examine the associations among service quality, perceived value, trust, customer satisfaction and customer loyalty. The results indicate that service quality, perceived value and trust have significant influences on customer satisfaction and customer loyalty that trust serves as a pivotal driver of customer loyalty, and that customer satisfaction had no significant influence on customer loyalty.  The Swedish Customer Satisfaction Barometer (Fornell, 1992), the American Customer Satisfaction Index (Fornell, Johnson, Anderson, Cha, and Bryant, 1996), and the European Customer Satisfaction Index have all demonstrated that customer satisfaction is the key issue for increasing customer loyalty (Gronholdt, Martensen and Kristensen, 2000). Therefore, many service providers are content with focusing on achieving customer satisfaction and think they can increase and sustain customer loyalty in service environments by doing so. They believe that loyal customers will keep coming back to buy more, will spend more, and will refer others (Stum and Thiry, 1991). But is a satisfied customer a repeat customer? Customer satisfaction is important, but it cannot explain all the variances of customer loyalty. It may even become independent of satisfaction such that satisfaction may not influence long-term loyalty intention at all (Chiou, 2004).


Revenue Recognition under US GAAP and IFRS Comparison

Dr. Hana Bohusova, Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic



 In 2001 the IASB was given a strong mandate by major constituents of the world´s capital markets to develop a single set of high-quality accounting standards. The effort was especially aimed at spreading of IFRS around the world and FASB – IASB Convergence Program. The most significant difference between US GAAP and IFRSs is in the area of general approach. IFRSs are based on basic accounting principles (1) with limited application guidance, US GAAPs are based especially on rules with specific application guidance. FASB and IASB initiated their joint project on revenue recording to converge IFRS and US GAAP in this area. The main objective of  this  paper is comparative analysis of revenue recognition under both systems and evaluation of the most significant differences in revenue recognition and measurements as a starting point for preparation of the new general standard for  revenue recognition.  The growth of cross-border investing and capital flows caused that the use of different national accounting systems makes difficult and costly for investors to compare opportunities and make financial decisions. Difference in national accounting systems imposes additional costs on companies that prepare financial statements based on multiple reporting models in order to raise capital in different markets. There are two significant systems of financial reporting for world capital market use. There are IFRS and US GAAP.


Consolidation and Changes in the Level of Ownership in the System of Common Consolidated Corporate Tax Base

Dr. Danuse Nerudova, Mendel University, Brno, Czech Republic



 At present, the introduction of the system of common consolidated corporate tax base represents one of the main priorities of the European Commission. The aim of the system is to remove or decrease compliance costs of taxation, to increase cross-border trade and to increase the competitiveness of the European companies on global markets. Companies are not able to fully use the advantages connected with the Internal Market, for they are still facing 27 different tax jurisdictions. The introduction of common consolidated corporate tax base (as the optional system in the European Union) should help to solve the problems. The aim of the paper is to analyze the rules which were suggested under common consolidated corporate tax base system in the area of consolidation and changes in the level of ownership, to discuss the regulation suggested in that area by European Commission in the draft of the directive. At the end, there are also suggested solutions to questionable regulations.  At present, the situation in the area of corporate taxation in the European Union is very complicated. Companies are not able to fully use the advantages connected with the Internal Market due to the existence of 27 different corporate taxation systems. That situation creates the obstacles to the cross-border business, mainly in case of small and medium sized companies (hereinafter SMEs). Those companies in comparison with large multinational companies (hereinafter MNEs) are not provided by sufficient human and financial capital for overcoming those obstacles.


Crafting the Whole Employee: Job Satisfaction, Job Commitment, and Faith A New Conceptual Framework and Research Agenda

Issam Ghazzawi, Ph.D., University of La Verne, CA

Yvonne S. Smith, Ph.D., University of La Verne, CA



 Job satisfaction is one of the most researched constructs in management literature, partly because of its connection to job commitment.  However, relatively few researchers have directly explored the idea that an individual’s religious faith might make a significant difference to his or her job satisfaction.  While the reviews of the limited literature suggest that there is a positive relationship between religious faith, job satisfaction, and job commitment, this paper will extend the literature by proposing theoretical underpinnings for the correlations.  The paper utilizes the life satisfaction literature to develop a new job satisfaction model that explores the antecedents contributing to satisfaction levels. It uses that framework to suggest several propositions concerning religious faith and job satisfaction, including the argument that when considering job commitment, under certain conditions religious faith can be a substitute for job satisfaction. Finally, the paper suggests a research agenda for the future.  The subject of job satisfaction has attracted a considerable amount of research.  By 1990 more than 12,000 job satisfaction studies had been published (Kinicki, McKee-Ryan, Schriesheim & Carson, 2002) and hundreds have been published since then.  Job satisfaction is an individual’s positive or negative attitude toward his or her job (Brayfield & Crocket, 1955).  Whether an employee likes a job tends to affect whether the person stays at the firm and how hard he or she works while there (Ghazzawi, 2008a; O’Reilly & Caldwell, 1980).  Several important constructs correlate with job satisfaction. 


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