The Business Review, Cambridge
Vol. 4 * Number 2 * Summer. 2005
The Library of Congress, Washington, DC * ISSN 1553 - 5827
Online Computer Library Center * OCLC: 920449522
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E-Mail, the ‘Lingua Franca’ of Going E-Global
Dr. Nadeem M. Firoz, Montclair State University, Upper Montclair, NJ
Dr. Ramin Taghi, William Paterson University, NJ
Jitka Souckova, NJ
E-mail and the Internet in today’s global world are not merely accessories; they are necessities. The world of E-mail involves selling goods all over the globe, outsourcing, spamming, viruses and much, much, more. The ever-growing business world demands people and companies to communicate faster and cheaper. E-mail connects people, allows customers shop around the clock, and it opens new marketing opportunities for businesses. Many jobs are being relocated overseas where they can be done in the same manner but at much lower cost using the technological advances of e-mail. The wide use of e-mail communication is constantly under the attack from hackers and spammers who produce lot of effort to make the use of e-mail less convenient for the users. E-mail has become a successful tool of communication in a very short period of time for specific reasons – it is very quick and relatively cheap. E-mail is also one of the main reasons why Internet grew into a powerful and widely used medium. Every minute millions of e-mails are being sent through the wires, or even without them, carrying messages from one side of the world to the other.
Economies in Transition: Factors Supporting Economic Growth and Development
Dr. Sanela Porča, University of South Carolina Aiken
Dr. David Shelby Harrison, SC
The fundamental question of government’s role faces politicians, economists, and citizens as a seemingly perpetual quandary. What goods and services should government provide, at what level, and, importantly, how will government presence in these and other areas affect economic growth? These questions are arguably more critical, and not unwelcomingly, more “observable,” in the many countries in transition, that moved from command to market economies during the last decade or so. The questions, and answers, require special consideration from businesses, researchers and governments. With the many regime changes, diverse economic conditions, existing institutional structures, and varied governmental roles across the transitional economies, much data is available for study and reflection on the factors most critical to growth. Using World Bank data and Barro’s regression model we examined many of the demographic and other factors believed to influence economic growth, applying them to transitional economies. Our findings were consistent with other studies indicating that while government size in itself is detrimental to growth, spending in areas of human capital (education, health), and efficient tax and regulatory systems promote growth.
Lyndon B. Johnson and Keynesian Economics: A Post Analysis of President Johnson’s Economic Policies
Dr. Hadley Leavell, Erik Leavell, and Dr. Balasundram Maniam, Texas
John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money is considered to have had such substantial impact on public thought and action that it significantly altered the direction of our society. Even the phraseology used to describe this theory, the "Keynesian Revolution", signifies the perceived influence. Keynesian doctrines and practices spread to the United States during and after World War II and remained prevalent until the late 1960's or 1970's. This became known in the Kennedy administration as “New” Economics. This paper will analyze tax and employment elements of the Keynesian economic policy that can be identified in President Lyndon B. Johnson’s administration. One “New” economic policy passed early in Johnson’s presidency was the Revenue Act of 1964. However, the resulting analysis for the time period 1963-1968 concludes that although there was a strong Keynesian influence throughout the U.S. economic policy for many years, Johnson’s policies were not purely Keynesian. John Maynard Keynes' The General Theory of Employment, Interest, and Money is thought to have had such a substantial impact on public thought and action that it altered the direction of our society. It was inspired by the employment crisis of the 1920's and it provided the rationale for government spending to achieve economic recovery (Keynes, 1936). Often referred to as the "Keynesian Revolution", the theory formed the basis of modern macro-economic analysis and growth economics.
Do Large Firms Pay More?
Dr. Vera Adamchik, TX
This paper analyses a wage differential between large and small firms in Poland. The Labor Force Survey conducted by the Polish Central Statistical Office in May of 2001 constitutes the data source for this study. The empirical analysis clearly demonstrates that even after controlling for observable workers' human capital characteristics and for occupation-, industry-, and location-specific effects, a statistically significant wage differential between small and large firms persists. A large portion (about 50-80 percent, depending on the decomposition method) of the observed wage gap may be attributed to the differences in the composition of employment in large and small firms A detailed decomposition of the remaining unexplained portion of the wage difference (20-50 percent) is rather difficult due to the identification problem and the large intercept gap. A transition process to a market economy in the countries of Central and Eastern Europe has been accompanied by a wide spectrum of adjustments. One of the most noticeable changes in the Polish labor market has been the emergence of the private sector, which has led to the creation of a decentralized wage-setting system. It has replaced the previous centralized system where wages were set at the level of the industry and were determined by negotiations between the government and trade unions. Conventionally, centralized systems are believed to reduce wage variation across industries and firms, while decentralized wage systems are usually associated with higher levels of wage inequality. For example, Boeri and Terrell (2002) argue that the transition will lead to new job matches that fit better with the heterogeneous skills and preferences of workers, resulting in an “explosion of earnings differentials at all levels, between the public and private sectors, between and within firms as well as across regions.” Thus, for a variety of reasons the emergence of the private sector with a decentralized system of wage setting is expected to be associated with an increase in wage differentials.
FASB Should Revisit Deferred Taxes
Dr. Ron Colley. GA
Dr. Joseph C. Rue and Dr. Ara G. Volkan, FL
The study examines the deferred tax accounting theory and procedures required by the FASB in the context of the unit problem. The unit problem involves the selection of the appropriate perspective (either individual or aggregate) for applying measurement and recognition conventions to phenomena of interest. From an individual event perspective, the FASB's conclusions regarding liability recognition are inconsistent with the definition of liabilities found in the Statement of Financial Accounting Concepts No. 6. In addition, the use of inconsistent perspectives by S109 creates disagreements with the FASB’s position, where both the individual and aggregate perspectives are used simultaneously as the basis of the FASB's decisions. The study argues that the income tax accounting issue should be viewed from an aggregate perspective and concludes that the flow-through method of accounting for income taxes should be adopted. The use of the flow-through method would show that the debt-to-equity ratios currently used in the financial evaluation of companies are flawed because the net deferred tax balances are included in liabilities, when it is clear that these accounts do not meet the liability criteria specified in accounting theory and should be added back to equity. In February 1992, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) issued Statement 109 (S109) to bring closure to accounting and financial reporting controversies concerning deferred taxes (FASB, 1992). S109 required companies to use the comprehensive inter-period tax allocation method for all timing differences between income tax reporting on the financial statements and on the tax returns. The companies were required to use the asset/liability approach and the current tax rate to accumulate the deferred tax assets and liabilities that resulted when the financial accounting and tax accounting bases of their assets and liabilities diverged. For income statement reporting, the legal tax liability for the period was adjusted by the periodic changes in the deferred tax asset and liability balances, to arrive at the tax provision (tax expense). S109 further required that an allowance account be established if it were more likely than not that the deferred tax assets would not be realized. Finally, there were fairly complex rules concerning the treatment of loss carry-forwards, tax planning strategies and their use in determining the balance in the allowance account, classification of the asset and liability balances in the balance sheet, tax rate and status changes, business combinations, and disclosures in the footnotes.
Australian Export of Food Products with Special Reference to Processed Food: Challenging Issues and Prospects
Dr. Hailu Kidane, Australia
Exports of food products, in particular, processed food products, are becoming increasingly important in terms of export earnings for the Australian economy. The industry accounts for about 68 per cent of the total real value of food exports and 20 per cent of total Australian merchandise real export value. However, Australian real export value of processed food products accounts for about 40 per cent of total real value of agricultural food production and only for about 3 per cent of the total real value of world processed food trade. Asia and the USA are Australia’s most important destinations for processed food exports, accounting for about 50 and 20 per cent of the total real value of processed food exports, respectively. The purpose of this paper is, therefore, to examine the impediments and opportunities for Australian processed food exports on world export markets. The findings of this study have revealed that Australia is highly restricted in its access to world processed food markets by the impact of export subsidies, tariffs and other trade barriers of overseas markets. The economic and political problems including rigid import controls are barriers to maintaining export sales on some of Australia’s traditional Asian markets. Higher input costs also contribute to Australia’s less competitiveness on world food products export markets. However, there are opportunities for Australian processed food products in the emerging markets in Asia and other world export markets. But Australia needs to give priority to diversification of export marketing, particularly in the emerging markets in Europe, Africa, Asia, the Americas and Middle East. The improvement in tariff barriers in Asia, the Americas and other emerging export markets is expected to provide improved market access and opportunities for Australian processed food. Australia is also expected to benefit from the recently concluded free trade agreement with the USA and Thailand through the liberalisation of trade. Australia should therefore implement appropriate measures to increase productivity, improve cost efficiency, and undertake market research and promotion in order to be more competitive in the long run and to capture a sizeable market share from its major global competitors (EU and the USA).
Health Care Resource Allocation: Making the Case for Social Responsibility as Integral to Resource Allocation
Richard J. Judd and Dyanne J. Ferk, University of Illinois – Springfield
This paper suggests an intermediate-level framework in which the four primary parties in health-care—health-care clinicians, individual patients, health-care managers, and a health management organization’s (HMO’s) plan membership—can incorporate social responsibility as an integral component in resource allocation decisions to address and/or resolve conflicts arising from differing positions taken by stakeholders. Health-care mangers and clinicians make difficult resource allocation decisions on a daily basis and frequently find themselves taking different stands in these decisions. Resolution is sometimes hampered by the absence of a framework common to both medical professionals and health care-managers in which to couch debate develop an ethical dialogue, or test theory when conflict arises between clinicians, health-care plans or patients (Khushf 1999). In a recent study of hospital directors, Ibrahim, Annelids, and Howard (2000) found that directors with medical and non-medical backgrounds differ in their concern for economic performance and legal issues. Members of a Board of Directors with health care backgrounds were found to be less economically motivated and less concerned with legal issues than those with a more business oriented background, though the two groups were similar with respect to their regard for ethical and philanthropic concerns. The authors noted the important implications of these differences for resolution of strategic and ethical dilemmas faced by health-care organizations. Physicians who serve on boards view patient care and state of the art diagnostic and therapeutic technologies as being of primary importance. Nurses state they have a role to play on boards to be the conscience of the organization and to keep a focus on the well-being of the patients.
Muse Air: Management in Crisis
Toby Pratt, Dr. Marian Schultz, Dr. James Schultz, FL
This paper details the variables which led to the incorporation, operation and eventual demise of Muse Air. The individuals involved with Muse Air, and its inexplicable ties to Southwest Airlines, make this story unique. After its launch bad timing, poor strategy, grueling competition, and unexpected obstacles plagued the fledgling airline. After four years of operation in a post-deregulation environment with no operating profits, Muse Air is sold to Southwest Airlines and eventually, liquidated. This paper not only includes historical facts regarding the organization of the airline, but also tells a story of a company, and the affect it had on customers, employees and the management team. Lamar Muse is at the head of Southwest Airlines as the first flight takes to the skies in June 1971. Muse is the company President and CEO. Years later, Muse finds himself at the helm of another airline, but this carrier bears his own name, Muse Air (Muse, 2002). Lamar Muse is no stranger to the airline industry. His experience within commercial aviation is extensive, having worked in senior positions with Trans-Texas Airways, American Airlines, Southern Airways, Central Airlines and Universal Airlines (Leary, 1992). During his 12 years at Trans-Texas Airways (TTA) as Secretary-Treasurer and Chief Financial Officer, Muse helps to transform the carrier into one of the most profitable in the industry. TTA becomes only one of two carriers to make a profit, and his success at TTA attracts the attention of American Airlines, where he is recruited as Assistant Vice-President for Corporate Planning (Leary, 2002).
The Mediating Effects of Procedural Justice in Predicting Commitment from Social Structural Factors in the Workplace
Pablo Hernandez-Marrero and Douglas Flint, Ph.D., Canada
This study examines the effect of social structural variables on perceptions of procedural justice. There are two major findings. First, a significant effect of participation in decision-making and hierarchy of authority on perceptions of procedural justice is found. This replicates the findings of Schminke et al (2000) with a Spanish-speaking sample. Second, four additional social structural factors are also shown to affect procedural justice. These are role ambiguity, sociopolitical support, access to information, and participative work unit climate. Schminke, Ambrose, & Cropanzano, (2000) emphasized the importance of organizational structure in shaping individuals’ perceptions of procedural justice. Our study extends this by examining a more complete set of social structural factors of the work unit environment. First, we replicate previous findings (Schminke, et al, 2000) by performing a cross-cultural replication of the effects of participation in decision-making and hierarchy of control on perceptions of procedural justice with a Spanish-speaking sample consisting of managers in the Canarian health care system. Second, we expand consideration of the effects of organizational structure by including the effects of additional social-structural variables on perceptions of procedural justice. These variables are: role ambiguity, sociopolitical support, access to information, access to resources, and participative work unit climate.
Turkish Pirate Pop Music Consumers: An Exploratory Research on Differentiating Features
Levent Sevinç, Ph.D. student, Ýstanbul University, Istanbul, Turkey
Gözde Yýlmaz, Ph.D., Kocaeli University, Turkey
Pirated music products invade music markets in physical forms like CD and cassette or by online means like downloading. Piracy is the greatest threat for the music industry of developing countries. Turkey is no exception. The Turkish music industry which is still in its growth stage has been negatively affected by this threat. The profit margin of the music sector has seriously declined recently because of piracy. Not only pirate music producers and distributors are responsible for this process, but also consumers play an important part in its spread. Despite the pervasiveness of pirated music products in developing countries, researches have only recently begun to examine the consequences of the invasion of pirated music products and their consumer profile in music industry. For this reason, this exploratory research reveals the factors which affect purchasing a pirated music product. Research results have shown especially three courses of behavior which significantly differ the consumers who buy pirated music products from the ones who buy licensed products. The sales of pirated music products have increased recently with the innovations like internet technology and CD-R. More than US$ 14 billion was reportedly lost due to worldwide piracy in software and music in 2001. The losses claimed by the music industry amount to US$ 4.3 billion (IFPI, 2002 cited by Jeroen van Wijk). Predicted pirate CD sales rate for the year 2003 showed that it exceeded 1 billion units for the first time. In the same year, 50 million pirated albums were detained and this number is 4 times more than the year 2001 (The Recording Industry Commercial Piracy Report, 2003). This means that one third of every purchased CD is pirated. Pirate music sector has become a US$ 4.6 billion industry today and it is predicted to reach 1/10 of the legal sector. This number is higher than all countries’ legal sales excluding USA and Japan. (“Global sales of pirate music...”, 2003)
Group Leadership in Korea
Inju Yang (Doctoral Student), BRP, University College Dublin, Co Dublin, Ireland
Confucianist management systems embody the value of social order in autocratic leadership, and obedient and cohesive follower collectives. Korean Confucianism however is further characterised by an emphasis on feelings and emotions – this is manifest in the Korean notion of “Jeong”, a bond of empathy, similar to and an extension of family ties. Jeong is often overlooked in discussions of Korean management concepts. The author suggests that the pervasiveness of Jeong in Korean management systems leads to an optimal leadership style similar to the Western concept of emotional intelligence. According to Hofstede (1980), Korea (South) is high in power distance and low in individualism (Power Distance Index =60 Individualism =18). Thus, it is not surprising that the leadership style in Korea is perceived as autocratic and group focused. This perception has been reinforced by several studies about Korean leadership suggesting that the characteristic of leadership in Korea is hierarchically authoritative and paternalistic (Chang & Chang, 1994; Koo & Nahm, 1997; Lee, 2001; Oh, 2003; Paik and Sohn, 1998). In the Korean management system, group harmony or group consciousness is strongly emphasized and is one of the most important values for many organizations (Mensik, Grainger & Chatterje, 1999). This authoritarian persuasion in Korea manifests itself in organizations in many ways, including reigning over people, and in being conscious of authority (Oh, 2003). Hierarchy has a positive role in some aspects, e.g., quick decision-making and regulation of behavior (Oh, 2003). However, authoritative bureaucracy can be highly closed (an example given by Lee was higher education organization in Korea; Lee, 2001). It can restrict open communication between leader and followers and it can limit
Unraveling the Organizational Commitment and Job Performance Relationship: Exploring the Moderating Effect of Job Satisfaction
Dr. Sarminah Samad, UiTM Shah Alam,Selangor, Malaysia
This paper presents the finding of a study on the relationship of organizational commitment and job satisfaction with job performance. The study also unraveled the moderating effect of job satisfaction on the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance. The sample consisted of 584 managerial level of employee in Telecom Malaysia, which was randomly selected. The obtained data were analyzed based on the descriptive and inferential statistics using SPSS version 12.0. The results hypothesized that both organizational commitment and job satisfaction were related to job performance. The study revealed that job satisfaction (hygiene and motivator factor) play roles in moderating organizational-job performance relationship. The implication of the results and suggestions are also put forward.. Interest in organizational commitment and job performance has been sparked by its potential benefits to individuals and to organizations. This is because committed employees are normally high performers and are highly productive (Porter et al., 1974, and Hunt et al., 1985), who identify with organizational goals and organizational values (Buchanan, 1974). The popularity of the organizational commitment concept stems from its linkage with several employee behaviors. Past research suggested that organizational commitment might have an impact on several work related attributes like performance (Mowday et al., 1974); absenteeism (Lawson and Fukami, 1984) and voluntary turnover (Hom and Griffeth, 1995). Although previous research emphasis has actually been on the turnover and absenteeism, it has however been recognized that employee performance is more important than for example turnover (Meyer et al., 1989). Therefore there is a greater need for more study to examine the relationship and effect of attitudinal or behavioral variables on job performance. This includes attitudinal variable such as job satisfaction. Three questions concerning the role of job satisfaction in determining the job performance largely unanswered: a) is job satisfaction related to job performance? b) does job satisfaction related to organizational commitment c) Does job satisfaction serve to moderate the relationship between organizational commitment and job performance?
The User Perspective of the E-Parliament Systems in Thailand
Penjira Kanthawongs, Bangkok University, Bangkok, Thailand
Governments around the world are eagerly moving toward a digital future, their plans can be blocked by a number of perspectives. This case study demonstrates the user perspective in implementing the e-Parliament systems of the Thai government. The e-Parliament project introduced to address the need for better legislative information management. The study concentrates on a government-to-employee (G2E) relationship in which the user perspective of the e-Parliament systems is explored. The major fieldwork was conducted on-sited at the Thai parliament, with semi-structured interviews carried out with thirty-one House of Representatives (HoRs). The researcher learned that implementing the e-Parliament systems was rather complex and different from a normal G2E relationship. To be successful, it needed to consider and fulfill the user perspective. Specifically, a number of issues proposed in this study are (1) enhancement of user participation, (2) continuous improvement of e-communication and e-report, and (3) better management supports. These issues are by no means comprehensive and representatives of all e-government initiatives, the researcher hope to provide some aspects for further discussions on this increasingly important area of research as well as practice. Governments at all levels are incorporating the use of the Internet and other digital tools such as wireless networking, web-based portals, or digital libraries to citizens, businesses, and their own employees. United Nations (UN) (2002) describes e-government as a strong relationship between the private citizen and the public sector through effective and efficient delivery of services, information, and knowledge. According to 2004 UN Global E-Government Readiness Report, around ninety percent of all countries now provide government databases, laws, policies, other online documents (United Nations, 2004). United States has been at the top of the report, followed by Denmark, and United Kingdom since 2003. However, United Kingdom has been the best for e-participation. Singapore, the Republic of Korea, Chile, and Malta have stood out among the countries with developing economies or economies in transition (United Nations, 2004). Lenk and Traunmuller (2000) claimed e-government can be viewed from four perspectives: the addressee’s (citizen) perspective, the process (reorganization) perspective, the (tele) cooperation perspective, and knowledge perspective. They elaborated that e-government was the basis redesign of the interaction between public administration and citizens which was a part of a reorganization of the business processes within public administration. The challenge of e-government is to search for a successful way of re-engineering and distributing the administration’s knowledge. Nevertheless, Lenk and Traunmuller (2000) mentioned only one group of users for e-government, the address’s (citizen) perspective or the government-to-citizen (G2C) relationship.
Dual Attitudes about Trust in Safety Culture
Dr. Calvin Burns, University of Strathclyde, Glasgow, UK
Safety culture is an important topic for managers in high hazard industries because a deficient safety culture has been linked to organisational accidents. Many researchers have argued that trust plays a central role in models of safety culture but attitudes about trust have rarely been measured in safety culture / climate studies. In order to offer a more complete assessment of trust in safety culture, this paper describes a study conducted at a UK gas plant that measured two different kinds of worker attitudes about trust: explicit or consciously controlled attitudes, and implicit or automatic attitudes. Explicit attitudes are those attitudes that are constrained by conscious processing whereby individuals consider and state their attitude to attitude-objects. Questionnaires like safety climate surveys measure explicit attitudes but these measures are subject to the effects of social desirability and may overestimate levels of trust within an organisation. Implicit attitudes are mediated by pre-conscious processes and can be activated relatively automatically. As such, they are not subject to the effects of social desirability and influence uncontrollable responses like nonverbal behaviours or responses that individuals do not attempt to control. The study found different patterns of results for explicit and implicit attitudes about trust. The paper proposes a model of dual attitudes about trust, which conceptualises explicit attitudes about trust as part of the surface levels of safety culture and implicit attitudes about trust as part of the deeper levels of safety culture. The paper concludes by explaining how the data support the proposed model and considers how the model can be validated in terms of organisational performance.
A Research on the Determinants of Consumers’ Repurchase toward Different Classes of Restaurants in Taiwan
Kai- Wen Cheng, National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Consumers definitely focus on different service factors of different classes of restaurants. This research examines the attention consumers give different classes of restaurant businesses. We expect to find different managerial strategies, each aimed at target customer groups to enhance competitive strength of the different classes of restaurant business. In this research, we adapted an individual interview and questionnaire survey for customers from Wang Steak and 3 Royal 3 House. 600 copies of the questionnaire were issued, and we received back 517 qualified completed questionnaires. In our questionnaire, we discuss the degree of customer emphasis for every service factor, customer satisfaction with every service factor, and the relationship of customer satisfaction with customer loyalty. We determined that different classes of restaurant business should implement different managerial strategies to reach their highest competitive strength. Some important facts were discovered by examining the point of view of customers regarding satisfaction and loyalty of different classes of restaurant business. We now expect to find a business niche that can be the basis for restaurants to adjust their restaurant business strategies.
Transition in Human Resources Function in Public Sector Enterprises in India - in the Context of Economic Reforms
Ms. Kamakshi Raman, Joint Director (HR), Steel Authority of India Limited
Ms. Usha Singh, Senior Manager (HR), Steel Authority of India Limited
Human Resource (HR) professionals in Indian Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) have traditionally focussed on administrative tasks, recruitment and employee assessment. Understanding the cultural, social and economic context and the drivers of socio-economic change is critical to understanding the magnitude and impact of the evolution of HR function in Indian PSEs. We present a contextual analysis of the evolutionary changes and the resultant new role of the HR function and the HR professional in large manufacturing PSEs in India. An evolved HR function and HR manager can deliver immense value to the organizational competitiveness of large Indian PSEs in the global marketplace by embracing change and creating a role for itself as the vehicle and agent of organizational change by managing the development of the organization’s most important resource – its people. After independence in 1947, India adopted a planned government intervention strategy to build its predominantly agrarian economy. Faced with pockets of acute poverty, the country’s leaders adopted a socialistic economic development policy with exclusive public ownership of key industries including Defence, Railways, Cement, Fertilizers, and Iron & Steel. The objectives of Public Sector Enterprises (PSEs) were to build infrastructure for economic development, create employment opportunities, promote balanced regional development and generate development resources. Investment in PSE infrastructure spurred the growth and prosperity of private sector enterprise. Establishment and support of engineering and technical educational institutions by the government ensured availability of technically skilled manpower. PSEs played a strategic and commanding role in the nation’s economic development.
A Research on the Inherent Limitation for Enrollment in Accounting Education in Taiwan Universities
Kai- Wen Cheng, National Kaohsiung Hospitality College, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Many scholars think that there is an obvious discrepancy of expectation between the providers of accounting education (teachers and students) and the demanders (employers of accounting firms and enterprises). Although many researchers have investigated the discrepancy of expectation, they generally focus on the amendment to the accounting courses and rarely mention other factors leading to the discrepancy of expectation. In the context of this background, this research employed a questionnaire survey, sampling contemporary students and alumni of accounting departments to explore the reasons for such discrepancy of expectation, as well as whether inherent limitation for enrollment exists. Empirical results proved that our premise was right. The results also showed that the best ways to eliminate the inherent limitation for enrollment are periodic presentation from accounting departments and publicity in high schools through undergraduates and graduate students. Taiwan has undergone many changes over the years since accounting started. Nowadays, under the influence of globalization and technologization, many native and foreign scholars think that there is an obvious discrepancy of expectation between the providers of accounting education (teachers and students) and the demanders (employers of accounting firms and enterprises). Although many scholars have investigated the discrepancy of expectation, they generally focus on the amendment to the accounting courses and rarely mention other factors leading to the discrepancy of expectation. In the context of this background, in order to fully understand the reasons that cause the discrepancy of expectation between the providers and the demanders, this research intended to leave out the part about the amendment to the accounting courses. Instead, this research aimed to explore the reasons for such discrepancy of expectation, as well as whether inherent limitation for enrollment exists as the basis of the motive and purpose of the research.
Analysis of Operations at the Kaohsiung Port New Mega Container Terminal
Ya-Fu Chang, Doctoral Student, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan, ROC
As most shipping companies have begun to operate large container ships in recent years, this study adopted the model of simulation to analyze the operation of container transportation at the new large container terminal in Kaohsiung Port under various situations. This report divided the port’s mega container terminal into three sub-systems, gate, container yard, and wharf and adopted simulation software to construct different operation patterns and identify possible scenarios involving wharf logistical operations. The study found that shipside and gate operations could be main sources of delays in transportation at a mega container terminal, and that these delays could be reduced in scope and the efficiency of overall logistical operations could be enhanced if other sub-systems were coupled with shipside handling container operations. Since the 1960s, containerships have been the preferred means of sea transportation, and the 21st century will see a continuation of the trend toward larger capacities for these vessels (Baird, 2001). Container transportation operations usually follow the hub and spoke model, which involves a network of railroads, highways, and feeder ships in which containers are amassed in a hub port and transshipped to their destinations (Ashar, 1999 & 2000). Having increasingly larger capacities will provide these ships with the advantages of economy of scale, meaning that they will be able to carry more containers to and from a single port (Culliane, 2000). Thus, the ports will need an operations system for their large container terminals that facilitates shippers and shipping companies in quickly transporting containers into and out of a terminal according to the various requirements of specific wharf operations (for example, a situation in which a large number of containers are going in and out within a very short time frame).
An Off-Site Drug Distribution System Designed to Expand Service into Underserved Areas: A Case Study
Dr. Frank G. Bingham, Jr. and Dr. Charles J. Quigley, Bryant University, Smithfield, RI
LoriAnn Collins, Thundermist Health Center, Woonsocket, RI
This paper describes the application of technology to extend the services of a healthcare facility into underserved markets. A satellite pharmacy network, using a remote dispensing system overseen by a licensed pharmacist, was used to extend healthcare services to low income, uninsured patients. The satellite pharmacy network allowed the healthcare facility to extend their distribution system at minimal cost while maintaining government dictated control over the system. The system allowed the healthcare provider to erase boundaries that had kept many low income and uninsured patients from receiving medication. The development and application of new and improved technology has had a dramatic impact on the health care field. Advances in diagnostic procedures and devices, medical implants, and surgical procedures are revolutionizing medical care. Technology has, however, been slow to assist in the delivery of quality healthcare to remote service areas and to segments of the population that have historically had difficulty gaining access to quality healthcare. This may be changing. New machines and processes are allowing healthcare providers to extend their reach into rural communities and provide access to prescription drugs for low-income patients while improving efficiency through better inventory control. This paper presents a case study of a community health center’s effort to extend its distribution system by using remote drug dispensing technology to reach difficult to serve communities and patient groups.
Willingness to Pay for Waste Clearance and Disposal: Results of the Taichung City Study
Dr. Chiung-Ju Huang and Dr. Yuan-Hong Ho, Feng Chia University, Taichung, Taiwan
This study uses the contingent valuation method to measure the willingness to pay for waste clearance and disposal in Taichung city. Questions aimed at estimating the WTP are constructed by using a payment card format. Empirical results indicate that variables such as family income, education level, feelings towards the seriousness of waste pollution, garbage classification, and willingness to pay to avoid living near a dumpster or incinerator, all have a significantly positive impact on the WTP, while the variable, family size, has a significantly negative impact upon the WTP. The estimated WTP of a typical four-member household is NT$113 per month. If the fee of waste clearance and disposal was priced at the NT$113, as calculated in this study, each liter of waste clearance and disposal would cost NT$0.32. Waste clearance and disposal has always been a constant concern of the government of the small, yet densely populated island of Taiwan. The Taiwanese government is serious about waste management issues and the nation realizes that failure to monitor the disposal wastes can cause serious pollution problems that will jeopardize the living condition of its people. According the statistics provided by the Environmental Protection Administration (EPA), the accounted amount of waste collected and treated in Taiwan has risen from 5,898,500 tons in 1988 to a peak of 8,781,600 tons in 2000, and has recently dropped to 6,139,050 in 2003. Similarly, the daily per capita waste collected and treated has also risen from an average of 0.860 kg in 1988 to a high of 1.082 kg in1998, and once again dropped to 0.752 kg in 2003. The observable decrease in total and per person waste clearance and disposal is most likely the result of the resources recycling and trash minimization policies. For example, Taipei City implements a pay-as-you-throw program, whereby citizens pay waste collection and treatment fees through the purchase of special trash bags approved by the Taipei City Government. Furthermore, Taichung City and Kaohsiung City enforce mandatory sorting schemes, where citizens face penalties if they don't separate recyclables from the trash before pick-up. These programs have led to a significant reduction in Taiwan’s garbage.
Assessment of the Texas Agricultural Finance Authority’s Rural Economic Development Programs
Roger Hanagriff, Marcy Beverly, and Lawrence A. Wolfskill, Sam Houston State University
Bethany S. Boyles, CPA, CIA, Graduate Student, Sam Houston State University
The Texas Agricultural Finance Authority (TAFA) has the mission of promoting Texas agribusinesses and agricultural products, particularly by providing resources to capital-deprived segments of the Texas agricultural sector. This paper presents the results of a study to determine the financial impact of certain TAFA programs on the Texas economy, and to make recommendations on which of these programs should be further developed and enhanced. The survey respondents provided information on the results of seven loan programs with respect to fund usage, perceived helpfulness, and economic benefits. The TAFA programs were significant in providing both full and part-time employment increases for the respondent firms. The firms receiving assistance could identify increased revenues from the support. Overall, the net economic benefit to the Texas economy was positive, and indicative of further development of the programs. Overall assessment of the TAFA program is that the program provides a variety of benefits to Texas agribusiness firms, improves environmental conditions, results in significant hiring of Texas residents, and provides significant increases in revenues which benefit the economy of the entire state. The economic returns exceed loan cost and defaults and create tax revenues that re-circulate back into the state economy.
What Factors Influence the Development of a Leader?
Siddeek Yoosuf, Holborn College, London
Many companies today lack in adequate number of globally competent leaders of high calibre and quality and they are seeking such leaders to lead various fields. Therefore it becomes important to develop potential successful leaders to fulfil the requirements of the business world today. In this context it will be very useful to know the factors that influence development of potential good leaders. Therefore, this paper is aimed at briefly describing various theories and arguments on the factors that influence development of a leader. African people consider Nelson Mandela an efficient leader even today. But he did not even have basic cloths to wear when his parents were persuaded to send him to school; Sonia Gandhi, spouse of late Rajeev Gandhi (son of late Indira Gandhi) who is an Italian origin was leading the oldest and biggest political party in India; Benazir Butto, daughter of Zulficar Ali Butto became a popular government leader some years ago with overwhelming majority; Queen Elizabeth became the Queen of Britain by birth. These few examples lead us to think what makes a leader? Therefore, this paper attempts to figure out the factors that contribute to the development of a leader. To understand what makes a leader it is also relevant to understand who is a leader? “The definition of a leader makes leadership sound simple: A person or thing that leads a person or followed by others. In fact, the more one exercises the leadership or is led, the more one realises that the fundamental nature of leadership is very personal and is not susceptible to clear scientific analysis. A study of great leaders shows an enormous diversity in their style of leadership, personalities and their ethos (Hannagan, 1998). It means that it is necessary to study great leaders to identify the factors that influence development of a leader.
Review of State Legislation Regarding UETA Since E-Sign
Dr. Mark S. Puclik, University of Illinois at Springfield, Springfield, IL
Five years ago, on June 30, 2000, the Electronic Signatures in Global and National Commerce Act (E-SIGN) became federal law. This provided a consistent baseline nationwide for the use of electronic signatures. Prior to E-SIGN there had been several state laws put into effect in an attempt to govern the needs of e-commerce which required electronic signatures. In the first two months of 1999, fifty-seven new electronic signature bills were introduced in the United States. (Smedinghoff and Hill Bro, p.1) Many of these state laws were not consistent with one another and created barriers to interstate electronic commerce rather than assisting it. In response to this, a committee of the National Conference of Commissioners on Uniform State Laws (NCCUSL), while addressing issues surrounding e-commerce, developed the Uniform Electronic Transaction Act (UETA). This Act was ratified in July, 1999. Initially only two states adopted UETA, California and Pennsylvania. (Privacy 2000 Task Force, p.3) More states came on board and by the time President Clinton signed the E-SIGN legislation, eighteen states had enacted UETA. E-SIGN, the federal legislation regarding electronic signatures, preempts any state law that is inconsistent with UETA. This law is intended to be in effect in the case of no other legislature or to give a minimum standard for e-signatures with some uniformity throughout the United States. Once a state enacts UETA then E-SIGN no longer applies. As of June 24, 2002, thirty-nine states have elected to enact UETA. (Baker and McKenzie, p.1) In the absence of UETA, E-SIGN is in effect. Twenty-one of the states who have elected to enact UETA have made revisions to it. The following paper is an overview of UETA, E-SIGN and the type of revisions several states elected to make to UETA before they enacted it.
A Comparison in Measuring Stock-Option-Based-Compensation Under the Fair Value vs. Intrinsic Value Method and its Effects on the Relation between Executive Compensation and Company Performance
Scott K. Campbell, Ph.D. and Brad R. Johnson, J.D., Ph.D., Francis Marion University, Florence, S.C.
In 2004, the Financial Accounting Standards Board (FASB) promulgated Statement of Financial Accounting Standards (SFAS) 123(R). The modification of SFAS 123 was based on the FASB’s presumptive conclusion that accounting for ESO’s under the Intrinsic Method does not result in financial statements that fairly present the results of operation and financial position of the company. Accordingly, in SFAS 123(R), the FASB requires, in part, that a “theoretical expense” be recognized on the grant date using one of several option pricing models originally developed by economists to estimate the “fair value” of granted ESO’s that generally are not susceptible to a readily determinable fair market value. However, Temple (2005) finds that these models are inherently unreliable and problematic, since they rely on variables that are subjective estimates and are easily manipulated, resulting in widely varying numbers. Consistent with the argument of Templin (2005), the purpose of this article is to provide empirical evidence that supports this article’s hypothesis:
A Study of Pick-up and Delivery Problem with Time Windows Using GIS— Courier Forwarding Industry as an Example
Tsung-Ping Yang, Ph.D. candidate and Li-Hsing Ho, Ph.D.
Chung Hua University, Hsinchu, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Following the fast development of the domestic courier industry and the fierce competition between companies, the elevation of the operational efficiency and the provision of the best service quality have become the key factors for courier companies to succeed. The questions of how to reach the customers in time with the correct goods, and how to satisfying the needs of the customers are issues courier companies should never ignore. The loading and the unloading of the cargos have to be completed within the time period required by the customers. Due to the traffic conditions of Taiwan and the commonly seen heavy traffic in urban cities, there are certainly difficulties for reaching the customers in time. Therefore, the present study used the algorithm for loading and unloading problem with the time window limitations as the basis, together with the practical internet analyzing function of Geographic Information System (GIS), and developed online algorithm for loading and unloading problem with the time window limitations, with the hope that both the solving speed and solving quality would be taken into account, in order to meet the practical business needs. Through Intelligent Transportation Systems, ITS, the present study constructed eight subsystems of intelligent freight car management system, vehicle positioning and sending system, driver management system, cost calculation management system, business achievement management system. The outcomes of the present study could be used on the material circulations at the rear end of electronic businesses, and together with the internal management and the storage system of the company, the immediate condition of the fleet of courier trucks and the cargos could be kept abreast; Furthermore, the relevant management systems at the front end could be integrated, and form a complete management chain of the supplying chain.
Traveling Motivation and Satisfaction of Tourists: An Empirical Study of Taroko National Park in Taiwan
Yao-Hsien Lee and Tung-Liang Chen, Chung Hua University, Taiwan
National parks in Taiwan have always been hot spots for domestic and international tourists. In recent years, however, the number of tourists who visit Taroko National Park has decreased. This has been concerned by the tourism industry. Therefore, the objective of this study is to investigate relationships between push and pull factors in traveler’s motivation and satisfaction. We discuss the effects of different populations and traveling patterns on the satisfaction of traveling experience of tourists, and examine the deviations in the tourists’ expectation and satisfaction. Our empirical methods include factor analysis, statistic statement, reliability analysis, one-way ANOVA, Ridit analysis, Pearson’ related analysis and important-performance analysis (I.P.A). By applying these methods, we analyze the relationships between traveling pattern, motivation, expectation and satisfaction. According to the result of ANOVA, it shows there is significantly difference in satisfactions between different population attributions (e.g. gender and marital status) and different traveling patterns (e.g. duration and cost). IPA shows that “the extent of fresh air” is the most advantage of Taroko National Park in Taiwan and “the opportunity to meet others” is the most disadvantage one. By Ridit analysis, it points out that the primary motivation of domestic tourists, which is conceived as push factor, is to experience different lifestyles, enjoy nature resources and take a rest. However, the main reason to visit national park, which is conceived as pull factor, is for its fine natural resources, cultural and healthy function, and treasured ecological conservation.
Business Schools Declining! Do programs Lack Depth for Breadth?
Stacy Schmidt, Ed.D. - California State University, Bakersfield
David Ralph, Ph.D. – Pepperdine University
Declines in enrollment for MBA programs across the United States demands a closer look at the curriculum of these programs. Business schools have a variety of offerings, but do they offer too much breadth and not enough depth. By studying business schools across the United States we will begin to understand the offerings and any deficits that might be occurring in these programs. It is apparent that MBA programs focusing on providing a little bit of education on each subject area instead of providing depth in a few key areas. Furthermore, programs seem to focus on management and lack emphasis on marketing, legal issues, and ethics. With reports of declines in business schools across the United States, the cause of such a decline has come into question. The first step in identifying the cause is to study the business schools themselves. Business schools have a variety of offerings, but do they offer too much breadth and not enough depth. By studying business schools across the United States we will begin to understand the offerings and any deficits that might occur. According to Jennifer Merritt (2005), “applicants to Business Week’s Top 30 MBA programs have dropped almost 30% overall”. Merritt found that business schools are to blame for corporate misconduct. In addition tuition has been soaring while salaries for MBA graduates has stagnated causing the loans accrued by MBA students to be as nearly as much as their base salary. Furthermore, managers are starting to promote within based on performance and less on degrees possessed.
A Study of Information Asymmetry Phenomenon in the Saving Market and Loans Market - A Causal Strategy Model
Gow-Liang Huang, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology, Taiwan
Hsiu-Chen Chang, Doctoral student, National Kaohsiung First University of Science and Technology & Lecturer, Yu Da College of Business, Taiwan
Chang-Hsi Yu, Yu Da College of Business, Taiwan
The objective of this study is to propose a causal strategy model to ease the information asymmetry phenomenon in the saving market and loans market among the depositors, banks, and borrowers. Based on the literature review, we find that most studies only focus on the saving market or the loans market separately. In fact, according to Huang et al. (2006), there has the bilateral agency relationship problems and information asymmetry phenomenon in the banking industry. In order to reach our research objective, we review the related literatures; find out the possible impact variables. The present study therefore proposes a causal strategy model for the banking industry. It provides scholars and specialists of the related fields, being used as the reference that the industry eases amid the information asymmetry phenomenon. The implications of these findings are further discussed in the paper. The information asymmetry phenomenon often exists between buyers and sellers, in the sense that the supplier possesses more information about the object of an exchange (e.g., a product or service) than the buyer. In Nelson’s (1970) terminology, many products and services possess “experience” attributes whose quality can be ascertained only after purchase. Customers’ inability to assess quality accurately can be opportunistically exploited by suppliers. Two potential problems exist, it includes: (1) adverse selection problem, and (2) moral hazard problem. First, the problem of adverse selection refers to the suppliers that do not possess the skills required to provide certain quality levels might misrepresent themselves by making false quality claims (Eisenhardt, 1989). In Akerlof’s (1970) terminology, a customer’s inability to ascertain a supplier’s inherent skills represents an “adverse selection” problem. Second, in contrast, a moral hazard problem (Holmstrom, 1979) also might exist in some markets, it refers to the lack of suppliers’ effort, because suppliers easily can influence the level of quality provided for each transaction (Rao et al., 1997; Mishra et al., 1998).
The Global Perspective of Free Trade Area of the Americas
Balasundram Maniam, Ph.D., Sam Houston State University
Globalization is the channel that binds economic integration and trade liberalization. As a business of distribution, trading is essential for economic growth among countries. It provides market access for goods and services on a comparative advantage scale. In 1994, steps were taken to create an area free of barriers to trade and investments among the countries of the Americas known as Free Trade Area of the Americas (FTAA). As the world’s largest free-trade zone, with a population of 800 million and a combined gross domestic product of more than $11 trillion, the FTAA will revolutionize the globe (www.sice.oas.org). This interdependence among countries will strengthen and preserve democracies for all of the Americas. To secure this commitment, President George W. Bush obtained fast-track trade authorization, which only allows Congress the ability to vote for or against an agreement and bars any amending. The purpose of this study is to analyze the global perspective of FTAA. The purpose of the research is two fold; (1) to determine the pros and cons that affect FTAA, and (2) to analyze the U.S. stance on FTAA. As the U.S. economy steadily slows down, what will the future hold for these countries? This study will increase your knowledge about the FTAA and its importance.
Choon-Shan Lai, University of Southern Indiana, Evansville, IN
This study is aimed at investigating the impact of macroeconomic news on stock returns by incorporating heterogeneous beliefs. Traders with heterogeneous beliefs have different interpretations of the same news upon releases of macroeconomic announcements. Differences in interpretations may lead to price changes in divergent directions. Such condition may contribute to the failures in finding relationships between macroeconomic news and stock returns as it leads to small changes in stock prices and high trading volume although the absolute changes in stock prices can be large. This study constructs two proxies of heterogeneous beliefs and partitions the sample according to the degree of heterogeneity in beliefs. The impacts of macroeconomic news surprise on stock returns in each partition are then investigated using a Generalized Auto-regressive Conditional Heteroskedasticity (GARCH) model. This study also controls for asymmetric information and other risk factors. This study is aimed at investigating the impact of twenty-two types of surprises in macroeconomic announcements on stock returns by incorporating heterogeneous beliefs among traders. It also attempts to construct appropriate proxies of heterogeneous beliefs.
Do Ethics Courses Help Business Students Make Ethical Decisions?
Barbara Libby, Ph.D., Walden University
Audrey Agnello, Niagara Community College
Vincent Agnello, J.D., Niagara University
This paper will test the hypothesis that ethics courses help business students in making ethical decisions. A series of ethical dilemmas were presented to two groups of students, one group had taken an ethics course and one that had not. In general the male students who had taken the ethics course made less ethical decisions than those who did not. The place of a course in business ethics in the business school curriculum is a hotly debated issue. A second issue is who should teach the course. Some have proposed that it should be taught by philosophy professors, others by business professors. See McDonald, 2004) for a very complete literature review of these issues. There is an even more basic question, is it possible to teach an ethics course that will change the behavior of business students. This study will try and determine if religion and ethics courses lead to more ethically behavior on the part of students. Particular attention should be paid to the behavior of male students since many studies have shown that male students are less ethically aware than their female counterparts. See Libby and Agnello, 2000 for a review of the literature on this point.
Welfare Optimization and Efficiency of Public Policies
Dr. Ioannis N. Kallianiotis,* University of Scranton, PA
The objective and optimism of this work is to measure a loss function for our society and to optimize (minimize) it by using public policies. The paper develops the loss to society function and tests the efficiency of public policies on our social welfare. The model of the state of the economy measures with the utilization of various specifications the growth of different target variables, which depend on central bank’s and individuals’ goals. A public policy (monetary and fiscal) is applied to our social loss figures to test its effectiveness. The results show that public policy is not very effective on improving our social welfare. The economy needs major structural changes to fulfill its precise potentials and our problems are not only economic, but social and philosophical. The current research develops a model and describes a procedure, based on the state of the economy, on public policies (monetary and fiscal policy), and on society’s objectives, which are satisfied by changing money supply growth, consumers’ and investors’ preferences, risk, and markets fluctuations and consequently, affect a loss to society function. The business cycle fluctuations in the world economies do not fall evenly across these broad spectra of factors’, like, investment opportunities, income, employment, time preferences to consumption, taxes, savings, speculations, greed, collusions, monopolists, market expectations, uncertainty (risk), consumers’ and investors’ behavior,1 price of oil, real wages, the value of the dollar (exchange rate), the financial markets, and liquidity affect aggregate supply and demand and therefore, price levels, long-term interest rates, and the other target variables. Of course, a serious question rises, now. What variables must be included in our social welfare function?
Fundamental Analysis and Stock Returns: India (2000-2005)
Mr. Dinesh Dhankani, Research Scholar, Veer Narmad South Gujarat University, India
This paper investigates the relationship between accounting information and stock returns for S&P CNX Nifty firms over the past 5 years. A simple financial score designed to capture short-term changes in firm operating efficiency, profitability and financial policy is constructed. The score exhibits a strong correlation with market-adjusted returns in the current fiscal period. The correlation remains significant with returns in the following period, although its strength is less when the holding period is less. Over the sample period, market-adjusted stock returns exhibit a slight mean reversion. However, stocks with high scores are characterized by momentum. It shows that this property derives from a positive autocorrelation in the financial score. Money continues to pour in India at a roaring pace through FDI and FII routes as the consistent and stable growth story seems intact. As this paper is framed, major indices in Indian Stock Exchanges like BSE SENSEX & S&P CNX NIFTY traded at the Bombay Stock Exchange and the National Stock Exchange touch their all time highs 0f 8138 and 2484 respectively. It seems that the Bull Run is here to stay with a genuine momentum and may be we are not yet done with it. It has almost clearly been understood and realized by Global Funds, Emerging Market Funds, Asia-Pacific Funds, India Centric Funds and even the retail investors back home that Indian Capital Markets cannot be ignored any more if their respective Portfolios needs Value Addition. Since the burst of IT Bubble in 2000, investors have become increasingly reluctant to investments in the stock market. Investors who made risky investments in the past and lost money have become more and more interested in limiting risk-taking, without having to abandon the stock market altogether. Institutional investors and fund managers are therefore facing a new demand - a demand for a tool to analyze securities which limits the risk of loosing money. Clearly, this opens the possibility that securities trade at prices that deviate substantially from their ‘fair’ prices. Financial research shows that a number of firm characteristics (e.g., firm size, value and growth attributes, and past price performance) are useful in predicting future stock returns. These characteristics are shared by a large number of stocks, which provides a large pool of stocks to invest in, and reduces the loss of diversification entailed in trying to exploit the characteristic-based return predictability.
Efficiency in the Botswana Stock Exchange: An Empirical Analysis
Oluyele Akinkugbe, Ph.D.,University of Botswana, Gaborone, Botswana
The renewed focus in recent years on financial systems of developing countries reflects the rapid and often spectacular deepening in the scale and complexity of the financial system of advanced economies. However, finance only adapts when there is real economic progress and real development can only be met in Botswana if there is an efficient financial market in place. In an attempt to understand the issues of efficiency––particularly, pricing efficiency––in the financial system of Botswana, the Efficient Market Hypothesis (EMH) was tested using data from the Botswana Stock Exchange. The random walk model was adopted to test the weak form efficiency while the standard market model was adopted to test for semi-strong efficiency. Our findings revealed that the Botswana Stock Exchange demonstrates efficiency both in the weak and semi strong forms. The article concludes by recommending that efficiency in the Botswana stock exchange can be further enhanced by providing information at low cost and on time; as well as by improving the role of markets in aggregating and conveying such information. The role of capital markets in channeling funds from surplus to deficit units that have productive use for such funds is unquestionably very important. In most African countries, the drive to achieve efficiency in the financial systems is desirable if stock markets are to play a vital role in the development process in most of their economies. An efficient market is desirable in socio-economic terms as it ensures that savings are channeled into profitable investments and capital is allocated in more optimal manner. However, most developing countries where the need for investible resources from stock markets is most crucial have inherently unattractive stock markets. The markets tend to be characterized by thinness (1) in trading, shallow breadth (2) and high transaction costs, and therefore tend to operate, in many respects inefficiently.
Measuring Consumer Preferences for Sales Promotion Schemes in FMCG Sector in an emerging market: India
Dr. Preeta Hemang Vyas, Indian Institute of Management, Ahmedabad, India
Fast moving consumer goods in India is characterized by intense competition leading to brand proliferation in various categories. Using consumer sales promotion to differentiate one's offer has been a common practice in matured urban markets. More and more budget is allocated to these activities in order to lure the consumers. In such a scenario, it is very essential to study how consumers make their choices in FMCG category where there are several brands in the consideration set of a consumer. The financial risk being low consumers do not mind switching from one brand to another due to sales promotion offer. Hence it would be of interest to a marketer to learn about consumer preferences with respect to sales promotion offers; what schemes do consumers prefer for what kind of brands, which media they prefer to learn about the schemes, whether they prefer incentive immediately or at a later date. It was found that deal proneness prevailed across different demographic segments. Price cut nature of promotions was found to be preferred. Out of the nine concepts presented to the respondents; they preferred a price cut nature of promotion on a national brand with an immediate incentive and awareness created at point of purchase. The study would provide insights to a brand manager while designing a scheme. Fast moving consumer goods in India is in turmoil due to proliferation of brands in various categories. Using consumer sales promotion to differentiate one's offer has become an order of the day in matured urban markets. More and more budget is allocated to these activities in order to lure the consumers. In such a scenario, it is very essential to study how consumers make their choices in FMCG category where there are several brands in the consideration set of a consumer. The financial risk being low consumers do not mind switching from one brand to another due to sales promotion offer (1). Hence it would be of interest to a marketer to learn about consumer preferences with respect to sales promotion offers; what schemes do consumers prefer for what kind of brands, which media they prefer to learn about the schemes, whether they prefer incentive immediately or at a later date. These are the questions which consumers consider while choosing a brand. Similarly even a manager has to consider the above while designing a scheme (2).
Changeable Service Stations Model in Design and Application
Dr. Pe-Ling Wu, Chienkuo Technology University
Dr. Jaw-Sin Su, Chinese Culture University
Dr. Ching-San Chiang, Chienkuo Technology University
A set of service model may change the place of stations which we call the changeable service stations model (CSSM). In this study, we postulate combining the artificial neural networks and queuing theory of waiting lines to develop a changeable service stations model. The recommendations include three parts. First, we deployed the Hopfield-Tank Neural Network (HTN), an artificial neural network to find the minimum distance from main routines and sub-routines for the service station space needed. Second, the queuing analysis of waiting line and the costs and the revenues are used to set up each machine on each space was considered. Third, for maximum profit consideration was given in the deployment of changeable machines. Our test model was the beauty center of the department of beauty of Chienkuo Technology University in Taiwan. A service operation may have stations set up in a certain service stations model. Generally, the stations are fixed at the given place of work (Lawrence, Jr and Pasternack 2002). But some service models may change the place of stations, we call them the changeable service stations model, for example a shopping center may display goods at some fixed point but at other times change the goods to other locations in order to correspond to customer traffic (Chou 1996). In this paper, we used the combination of the artificial neural networks and queuing theory of waiting lines to develop a changeable service stations model. The artificial neural networks technique is used to find the best routines for the service model when different sets of service stations are mixed among stationary stations. The queuing theory of waiting lines was used to find the cost saving and revenue (Berry and Linoff, 1997).
The Development of Port Marketing Strategy – A Case Study of Kaohsiung Port
Dr. Hsing-Chau Tseng, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan, ROC
Ya-Fu Chang, Doctoral Student, Chang Jung Christian University, Taiwan, ROC
With the emergence of new ports in the Asian Pacific area, traditional ports can no longer compete for cargo sources on the basis of geographical advantage. Instead, they have to emphasize “user demand-oriented” operation patterns to compete for clients with other ports. In recent years, East Asia has become an area of the most rapid economic development in which sea transportation markets are increasingly prosperous. Considering Taiwan as a hub of Pacific sea routes, this paper attempts to describe how Kaohsiung Port in Taiwan took advantage of practices adopted by private sectors to develop and plan port’s marketing strategies. When Taiwan promoted itself as an Asian Pacific transshipment hub in sea transportation, it attempted to find by means of observing the trend of development of international port and shipping, as the demands and requirements from current carriers for services at a port were much different from those of the past. In fact, shipping companies are reducing berth time of their mother ships at ports. Besides, in order to reduce the cost of operation and expand their services offered to owners of cargos, the shipping companies connect routes of feeders in different regions to form a network of services to reduce the numbers of ports at which mother ships. In a word, the carrier could provide a set of value-added transportation services (such as international logistics) through the strategy of changing operations of markets to respond quickly and directly to transportation services demanded by owners of cargos. On the other hand, the demands from shipping companies to the ports their ships berth will be different due to considerations of attributes of routes and business of operation. Therefore, the marketing strategies for international ports in Taiwan are becoming more important.
Diversity and Sensitivity Issues in Management: The Case of the Genetic Screening Questionnaire
Dr. Debra Hunter, Troy University, Atlanta, Georgia
This mini case was written based upon an actual episode that a patient encountered while searching for medical care during the initial stages of pregnancy. This case involves an African American female who was offended by a genetic screening questionnaire administered prior to receiving prenatal care at an OBGYN facility. As a result of this offense, the OBGYN clinic lost a new patient to a competitor located in the same building. While the case clearly deals with sensitivity issues and diversity, students should view the case from a manager’s perspective in understanding how to prepare an organization for the changes that a business might incur to accomodate customers of various ethnic and cultural backgrounds. Students should gain an understanding on how to evaluate tools, processes, and procedures that need changing to deal with such issues. Also, the students should be able to understand the impact that insensitivity might have on the future growth of an organization. OBGYN of Swanee started in 1993 as a private medical care facility for total women’s healthcare. Suwanee,Georgia is a rapidly growing northeastern suburban city of metro-Atlanta, a melting pot of various cultures and ethnic groups. According to the Statistics and Demographics Report (U.S. Census 2000), the population of Suwanee is approximately 8725 individuals (White- 83.70%, Black-6.38%, and Asian-6.84%, and Hispanic-3.16%).
Enhancing Growth of Small and Micro Enterprise in Urban Areas of Kenya: The Case of Jua Kali Artisans in Nairobi, Kenya
Timothy Chrispinus Okech, United States International University (USIU)
Small and Micro-Enterprises (SMEs) development has emerged as a major strategy in poverty alleviation, wealth and employment creation, which contribute positively towards economic growth. In order to expand the growth of these enterprises, the Kenya Government has coordinated its relevant ministries with Non Governmental Organizations and Community Based Organizations (CBOs) in designing programs to enhance expansion and growth of the sub-sector. These promotion services to the sub-sector are expected to contribute towards the acquisition of skills and development of entrepreneurship among the entrepreneurs. Despite the government and other stakeholders programs that have been initiated towards the sub-sector, the sub-sector is experiencing rapid turnover with many businesses getting started while at the same time others going out of business. It is within this context that this study was conducted in Eastland part of Nairobi. Using both primary and secondary data collected from primary and secondary sources, the study found that majority of the entrepreneurs are and will remain copiers and they did not have the skills and management experience to prepare business plans and cash flow statement. Other notable findings include inability to access assistance packages provided by key stakeholders; high cost of raw materials including timber and capital goods. Other findings include high cost of credit and requirement for collateral, harassment by city council askaris and police officers; high cost of transport due to poor road infrastructure, and high cost of fuel); lack of marketing skills and stiff competition. On the basis of the above, a few recommendations were made namely, provision of: marketing services, land, technical and management training; affordable credit and donations from key stakeholders including government; enhanced awareness; encourage formation of association (SACCOs); duty waivers on imported capital goods; enhanced target mechanisms.
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