The Business Review Journal
Vol. 5* Number 1 * December 2016
The Library of Congress, Washington, DC * ISSN 1553 - 5827
The Library of Congress, Washington, DC * ISSN 2167-0803
Online Computer Library Center, OH * OCLC: 940146916
National Library of Australia * NLA: 49026139
Peer-Reviewed Scholarly Journal
All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process.
The primary goal of the journal will be to provide opportunities for business related academicians and professionals from various business related fields in a global realm to publish their paper in one source. The journal will bring together academicians and professionals from all areas related business fields and related fields to interact with members inside and outside their own particular disciplines. The journal will provide opportunities for publishing researcher's paper as well as providing opportunities to view other's work. All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process. The journal is a refereed academic journal which publishes the scientific research findings in its field with the ISSN 2167-0803 issued by the Library of Congress, Washington, DC. The journal will meet the quality and integrity requirements of applicable accreditation agencies (AACSB, regional) and journal evaluation organizations to insure our publications provide our authors publication venues that are recognized by their institutions for academic advancement and academically qualified statue. No Manuscript Will Be Accepted Without the Required Format. All Manuscripts Should Be Professionally Proofread Before the Submission. You can use www.editavenue.com for professional proofreading / editing etc...
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United States Remains Greedy for Taxes
Dr. Denise de la Rosa, Grand Valley State University, MI
Dennis C. Stovall, Grand Valley State University, MI
Over recent years, the United States has made its way to the top of the list for the highest corporate tax rate among all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Competition for corporate tax dollars has continued to increase, especially after the economic recession in 2008. Countries are now competing with each other to have the lowest corporate tax rate so they can attract companies to move their headquarters there. This paper shows the shift of corporate tax rates amongst the OECD countries from 2006 to 2015 and discusses the reasons why select countries decreased their corporate tax rate so dramatically. New ideas have been introduced throughout the years in the United States but nothing has been done to change the high tax rate. The United States should soon join other OECD countries and lower its corporate tax rate so companies can become a world leader in investment and growth. Competition has continued to increase over the years and not just between companies, but between countries. Countries are marketing themselves as location options for corporation’s headquarters. Different tax structures appeal to corporations of a particular industry. Different regulations and taxation policies give companies reasons to move production facilities to the country that has the best tax structure for them. See Exhibit 1.1, below: The United States has the third highest general top marginal corporate income tax rate in the world at 39 percent, which is the same as Puerto Rico and is exceeded only by Chad and the United Arab Emirates. The worldwide average top corporate income tax rate (accounting for 173 countries and tax jurisdictions) is 22.9 percent, 29.8 percent weighted by GDP. By region, Europe has the lowest average corporate tax rate at 18.7 percent (26.1 percent weighted by GDP). Africa has the highest simple average at 28.77 percent. Larger, more industrialized countries tend to have higher corporate income tax rates than developing countries. The worldwide average corporate tax rate has declined since 2003 from 30 percent to 22.9 percent. Every region in the world has seen a decline in its average corporate tax rate in the past twelve years. There has been a shift in taxation rates over the last 25 years but especially in the last 15 years. Corporate tax rates have fallen across countries like Ireland, the United Kingdom, and Japan, just to name a few. However, unlike so many other countries in the world, the United States has not seen a substantial decrease. The first European country to cut its rate was the United Kingdom in the mid 1980’s. The government of Margaret Thatcher lowered the corporate tax rate from 52 percent to 35 percent between 1982 and 1986 (Hickey 2006). The idea behind it was that that drop in tax rates will attract more investment which, in turn, would increase tax revenue. This mindset is still being used by governments today. The United Kingdom has had a reduction in corporate income tax since 2006, going from 30% to 20% in the nine-year span. The Conservative-Liberal-Democrat coalition government has proposed a policy change from 2010 to 2015. The policies implemented are expected to reduce corporate tax revenues by around Ł8 billion. Tax receipts as a percentage of national income have decreased from 3.2% to 2.3% since 2008. This decreasing percentage will continue for a couple more years as the losses that the financial sector had in previous years were accumulated and not being used to offset tax liabilities (Miller and Pope 2015). Between 2006 and 2015 only four countries in the Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) increased their corporate income tax.
Organization and Use of Executive Advisory Boards in Business Schools: Best Practices
Dr. Jan Duggar, University of North Florida, FL
Dr. Julius Demps II, Jacksonville University, FL
Dr. Russell Baker, Jacksonville University, FL
The purpose of this paper is to assist deans and business schools in developing effective advisory boards that add value to the schools’ activities and programs along with assisting in achieving the schools’ mission. The paper addresses the following steps involved in establishing an advisory board: (a) mission statement for the advisory board; (b) statement of purpose for the advisory board; (c) selecting board members; (d) appointing members; (e) adopting charter documents; (f) forming committees, (g) setting agendas for meetings; (h) using the board; (i) raising funds; (j) developing school and program advocacy; (k) providing publicity for members; and (l) evolving member responsibilities. Business school advisory boards in the United States include an array of benefits that help the school to grow, sustain, and compete. Advisory board proliferation and implementation appears to become somewhat mandatory if these institutions wish to remain relevant. Indeed the role boards play within business schools are too large for a singular dean to facilitate or faculty members to carry out with their duties of conducting research, teaching, and university service. Various functions that boards assist with include curriculum issues and ideas for new business programs, accreditation, community image and outreach, and fundraising. Nagai & Nehls (2014) state “Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities. They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses.” Further illustration of the benefits of colleges and universities exercising community outreach is articulated when Conroy & LeFever (1996) offer the following regarding the importance of advisory boards and image: A well-chosen advisory board that comprises industry-leaders is a visible sign that program’s administration is seriously interested in maintaining its connection with the industry. In this sense, the concept of image goes far beyond mere window dressing. While most programs have mechanisms for determining and responding to industry concerns, by empaneling an advisory board administrators give a concrete and clear signal that they will methodically and intentionally seek out the input of industry leaders. Students benefit from this input, and the program’s reputation consequentially is strengthened. (p. 87) Kaupins & Coco (2002) conducted research, which strengthens the position of benefits and implementation of business college advisory boards. Their research displayed the following: (a) 53% of business schools surveyed had departmental advisory boards; (b) 90% of the boards have private sector company representatives; (c) the main role of the board was to analyze curriculum issues; (d) developing new programs was second; (e) publicizing the school was third; and (f) developing the organizational mission was fourth. The research also noted that other board functions included fundraising, alumni relations, internship and job placement support, and accreditation support. The study of business, unlike many college majors, changes rapidly. In order for business schools to remain competitive, some have elected to go through the process of adhering to standards set forth by the Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business or (AACSB Accreditation). As such, advisory board participation in these particular institutions is critical. Ellingson, Elbert, & Moser, (2010) explains the following regarding the value AACSB places on advisory boards to business schools: That value connect lies in advisory boards. These groups of executives work closely with school leadership to help bring relevance to the curriculum and to the classroom and to champion the school to prospective donors and students to business colleagues and the community. (p. 1). Furthermore, the AACSB has championed the use of advisory boards through the offering of seminars regarding the effective use of these boards (Association to Advance Collegiate Schools of Business, 2015). Not all board participation is viewed highly in colleges and universities. More specifically by that of college of business faculty members.
Re-positioning Negotiating Styles within a Values Framework
Dr. David A Robinson, RMIT Asia Graduate Centre, RMIT University, Vietnam
Dr. Trung Quang Nguyen, RMIT Asia Graduate Centre, RMIT University, Vietnam
Management theories may be an essential tool used by many professional managers in an attempt to improve their understanding of what works in relation to leadership and management in organizations. Yet, with the proliferation of management theory and the sheer volume of literature on the subject of management, there is a risk that managers will be unable to absorb all the necessary theories that could be useful to them. Furthermore, theories may appear to contradict each other. For that reason, the authors believe there is a pivotal role for the meta-model, i.e. ‘a model that combines and embraces established models or theories to facilitate a deeper, richer application of each in its own right’ (Robinson, Morgan & Nguyen, 2016). A previous paper by the same authors (2016) integrated four traditional management theories into a single meta-model known as the Values Journey. The use of a meta-model increases the likelihood of the contingent being practically applied in workplaces. This paper expands the same concept by integrating negotiation styles into the Values Journey meta-model. It has already been shown that the Values Journey meta-model has been used to integrate Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg and McGregor’s motivational theories, Tuckman’s model of team effectiveness and Belbin’s Team Roles (Robinson, Morgan and Nguyen, 2016). This paper further explores the usefulness of the Values Journey as a meta-model that incorporates negotiating styles and enhances our understanding of negotiating positions. Furthermore it introduces a model to facilitate successful collaborative negotiations. “The psychology of the mature human being is an unfolding, emergent, oscillating, spiralling process marked by progressive subordination of older, lower-order behaviour systems to newer, higher-order systems as man’s existential problems change” Graves, 1970 With its origin in Graves’s (1970) Model of Bio-Psycho-Social Behaviour, in which he asserted that developing people experience continuing emotional and intellectual between two opposing developmental forces. One force compels them to act ever more responsibly by fitting in with the world; the other to exert their innate power of self-determination in pursuit of ultimate autonomy. This dualistic intention sets up a model for the portrayal of the journey of life and may be illustrated as a two dimensional model (Robinson, Morgan and Nguyen, 2016); [please see Figure 1]. On the horizontal axis of the Values Journey model is plotted humankind’s capacity for rational and considerate conduct in society, whilst on the vertical axis is plotted humankind’s capacity for autonomous thinking and actions. The journey is divided into three stages labelled as follows: stage 1 pre-orderly, stage 2 orderly, stage 3 post-orderly. Stage 1 is characterized by chaos, as at this stage the so-called ‘rules of right living’ have yet to be discovered. The chaos is therefore accidental or unintentional. Stage 2 is characterized by control, as it is during this stage of development that the ‘rules of right living’ are applied in a purposeful way. Stage 3 brings a return to chaos, but of a different kind to that of stage 1, as by now the ‘rules of right living’ have been not only mastered but, in a sense, transcended, thus the departure from order is intentional or purposeful. There are two value stations within each stage, thus the overall values journey may be seen as consisting of six steps. Throughout the values journey, a tension exists where the forces of the X axis (intended toward fitting in with society) and the forces of the Y axis (intended toward autonomy) are at play.
The Influence of Moral Emotions on the Relationship Between
Workplace Bullying and Attachment
Dr. Jacqueline N. Hood, University of New Mexico, NM
Dr. Kathryn J. L. Jacobson, University of New Mexico, NM
Dr. Ryan P. Jacobson, University of New Mexico, NM
Workplace bullying is defined as repeated, malicious, and health-endangering mistreatment of an employee by one or more other employees. Workplace bullying has been associated with negative outcomes for the individual being bullied and for the organization in which such actions take place. This paper discusses the relationship between workplace bullying, attachment style and the moral emotions of guilt and shame. It is proposed that an individual’s attachment style (secure or insecure) is related to bullying such that those with a secure attachment are less likely to bully than those with an insecure attachment. Further, the paper suggests that the moral emotions of guilt and shame moderate the effects of attachment style on bullying. Specifically, it is proposed that the more secure one’s attachment style the less likely the individual is to exhibit workplace bullying behavior with guilt and shame proneness strengthening this relationship. Further, the more insecure one’s attachment style, the more likely the individual is to exhibit workplace bullying behavior with guilt and shame proneness weakening this relationship. Workplace bullying has become an increasingly important topic in the business literature since managers need to retain the best and the brightest employees in the current highly competitive business environment. Workplace bullying is the repeated, malicious, and health-endangering mistreatment of another individual or individuals at work (Jennifer, Cowie, and Ananiadou, 2003; Einarsen, 1999; Namie and Namie, 2000). Bullying has been found to have negative individual and organizational outcomes, such as psychosomatic illness (Djurkovic, McCormack, and Casimir, 2004), alcohol abuse, (Richman, Flaherty, and Rospenda, 1996), post-traumatic stress disorder (Vartia, 2001, 2003), reduced productivity (Hoel, Einarsen, and Cooper, 2003), decreased job satisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, and greater intention to leave (Tepper, 2000). Although there have been a number of studies on the consequences of bullying, as well as the characteristics of victims, there is a paucity of research on the antecedents of workplace bullying. Attachment theory may provide insight on the basis for workplace bullying. Attachment theory notes that individuals develop at a young age “working models” of the self, one’s relationships, and relationship partners that include secure, insecure avoidant, and insecure anxious styles (Bowlby, 1982). These models affect one’s relationships in adulthood (Little, Nelson, Wallace and Johnson, 2011; Mikulincer, Florian, Cowan and Cowan, 2002). Those who are securely attached are able to perceive the world as generally safe, trust others to be available to them in times of need, and believe that interaction with others will be rewarding. The insecure avoidant attachment style is related to problems with hostility and aggression (Cummings-Robeau, Lopez, and Rice, 2009). A high level of attachment anxiety has been found to be related to emotional reactive behaviors (Wei et al., 2005), excessive reassurance seeking (Wearden, Perryman, and Ward, 2006), and hypersensitivity (Weems, Berman, Silverman, and Rodriguez, 2002).
Methodology Calculation Differences of Customer Satisfaction of Field Service in China
Dr. William Bleuel, Pepperdine University, CA
Xiangre Kong, Pepperdine University, CA
In current high technology markets, customer satisfaction is becoming a more significant aspect of business management. In China, companies that provide products and services are concerned about the impact of field service on customer satisfaction as it may be affected by speed of economic development. This study examines customer satisfaction measurements with Field Service in China to determine whether there is a difference in the drivers of satisfaction provided by three different statistical methodologies; namely regression analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling. The trend in Overall Satisfaction over the eight years from 2005 to 2012 has been positive. Calculations of measured parameters of Field Service from the three methodologies are similar for the past eight years but with different orders of emphasis both between the methodologies and the years. For each of the three methodologies, the two most significant factors are estimated and compared. The comparison indicates that there is no consistency between the top two factors. The results suggest that companies need to understand the similarities and differences in these computational methodologies in order to optimize the use of their resources and adjust their field service offerings to respond to their customer needs and expectations most effectively. For each company, market position is often impacted by well-organized product support. One way is to provide a level of customer satisfaction that meets customer expectations. While customer satisfaction does not completely imply customer loyalty, it is usually a significant factor. Since the high technology industry has such a short half-life and serious competition, high technology companies usually need to pay significant attention to supporting their products in order to increase the likelihood of customer retention. The use of Field Service to improve customer satisfaction, especially in high technology companies, has been studied in terms of creating systems into cloud computing to improve the customer retention rate.  By collecting, organizing and analyzing Field Service data in a timely manner, companies can monitor and improve service quality.  Technology advancements have had an impact on employees and customers. In general, as the use of technology increases, the impact and implementation may induce stress on the users.  In China, personal education of communication and technical skills is lacking. Their education system emphasizes competence rather than process. So the hiring of Field Service personnel is based primarily on education and skills rather than experience.  Chinese customers have an increasing service quality requirement in more mature markets. Facing similar products, Field Service has become one of the most significant differentiators for purchasers when considering high technology products. And, there is a rising expectation of after-sales service.  Meanwhile, Chinese manufacturers focus more on service quality and reaction speed, such as response time and complete solutions, than ease of contact or professionalism as competition increases. In the future, Chinese prosperity will be founded on a continued commitment to globalization. Nowadays, driven by the trend toward global competition, great efforts are devoted to the speed of product development, the integration of resources, innovation and high quality field service.
A Game Theoretical Analysis of the Equality of Cross-Regional Public Resources and Environment
Dr. Chen-Kuo Lee, Ling Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.
Li-Ru Chen, Department of Industrial Education and Technology, National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C.
This study discusses the equality of cross-regional public resources and environment using a cross-regional game model and the system arranged by central governments. Secondly, this study intends to identify the solutions for the cross-regional pollutions using game theories in order to identify the pareto optimal equilibrium in which all parties cooperate with and treat each other fairly. This study finds that, after the lengthy and repeated game process ends, all parties adjust their cross-regional pollutions strategies and choose pareto optimal equilibrium rationally instead of their strategies. Therefore, pareto optimal equilibrium is attainable for central governments using incentives and appropriate systems. Ecological environment is one of the fundamental resources for economic and social developments. There is no doubt that environment protection is an essential choice for sustainable development (Brunnce, 2004). Faced with the irreversible trend of economic globalization, every nation strives to maximize its interests. Ironically, the political and economic inequality causes a number of developed nations to shift their pollutions and ecological crisis to the developing nations and have thus damaged the developing nations’ existence, particularly their sustainable development and environment safety (Rao,2002; Pocklington,2003; Dunoff,2004; Stander, 2004). The international community spares no effort to solve the problems arising from the overdevelopment and has thus implemented a multi-legal framework that controls hazardous wastes crossing borders using the Basel Convention as its core element based on global and regional treaties, bilateral agreements, and domestic legislatures, thereby creating the legal basis for the international community to control hazardous wastes being shifted across borders (Schneider,1996; Waugh,2000; Gallegos, 2002). Nevertheless, the international laws and domestic laws are unable to solve the problems permanently at the time that the huge difference between developed nations and developing nations continues to exist (Marcus, 2001; Gary and Moseley,2005; Sunderlin et al.2005; FAO,2007; Shahbaz et al.,2007; Lei and Dayong,2011; Shahbaz et al., 2011). Faced with the deteriorating problems arising from cross-border hazardous wastes, the international community has to foster the international cooperation, harmonize all nations’ interests, and improve the domestic laws in order to solve the problems for the sustainable development of the world (Campbell, 1996; Berke and Conroy,2000; Jepson,2003; Jepson,2004; Conroy,2006; Jepson,2007; Conroy and Beatley,2007; Saha and Paterson,2008; Lubell, Feiock, and Handy,2009; Grodach, 2011). In the 1970s, the United States, Canada, Sweden, Norway quarreled with Germany and France for the problems arising from acid rain. In recent years, Korea complained about China’s acid rain spreading to Korean territory (Dunoff, 2004). Nuclear pollutions cause tensions between nations, too. The 119 nuclear power generators built by western European nations are located less than 100 kilometers from borders. The nuclear power generators have caused nuclear contaminations repeatedly for the neighboring nations, such as Portugal, Spain, Belgium, Luxemburg, and Germany (Parikh, 1994). Moreover, pollutions have been shifted across borders over the past years.
Corporate Governance and Firm Financial Performance: The Effects on Security Returns of Listed Companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand
Dr. Kanibhatti Nitirojntanad, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand
Dr. Nantana Jaengsawang, Rajabhat Thepsatri University, Thailand
The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of corporate governance and firm financial performance on the security returns of listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand. This study used secondary data of 339 listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand in all industrial groups excluding companies in the market for alternative investment, business financial group, as well as the rehabilitation companies. The data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis. The results suggested that corporate governance as proxies by board composition and ownership structure including percentage of directors in board meetings, percentage of free float on total shareholders were found to have positive effects on security returns whereas board size was found to have negative effects on security returns. The percentage of directors with financial or accounting expertise in the audit committee was not found to have significant effect on security returns. Firm financial performance as measured by earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) was found to have positive effects on security returns while free cash flows were not found to have significant effect on security returns. Book value as a control variable was found positively related to security returns whereas the leverage as measured by the ratio of equity to total debt was not found to be significantly related to security returns. The results of this study implied that corporate governance and firm financial performance are important information affecting security returns of listed companies in the stock exchange of Thailand. Therefore, information disclosed in the financial reports of companies listed on Stock Exchange of Thailand are relevant to investor decision making. Research concerning value relevance of accounting information concerning firm financial performance and corporate governance including board composition and ownership structure have been subjected to considerable empirical analysis. Over the past few decades, the value relevance of earnings based firm performance measures appears to have increased (Collins, Maydew & Weiss, 1997). Empirical market-based accounting research seeks evidence of the value relevance of firm financial performance by analysis of the relationship between these data and various market variables such as security price and returns. In addition, the literature indicates the importance of good corporate governance in enhancing quality of financial reports. Gompers, Ishii & Metrick (2003) found that good corporate governance increases value and profitability of the firm. Claessen (2002) found that corporate governance benefit firms through greater access to financing, lower cost of capital, better performance and more favorable treatment of all stakeholders. The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of corporate governance and firm performance on the security returns of listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand (SET). In this study, corporate governance as proxies by board composition and ownership structure are examined. Board composition is measured by the percentage of independent directors, percentage of financial or accounting expertise of directors in audit committee, percentage of directors in board meeting, and board size. Ownership structure is measured by percentage of free float. The measurement of firm financial performance includes net profit, free cash flows, and earnings before interest and taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA). The control variables include book value and the ratio of equity to total debt.
The Demise of Academic Structure - When Organizational Ails Blindside the Organization
Dr. Janice Spangenburg
Treating individuals with dignity and respect never goes out of style, and incidences of maltreatment and sexual harassment are rife in organizations because it does not discriminate and it often is not just between one gender and another. Harassment can target those who are different in other ways and those with education or wisdom and who know the difference. A case just like this case study occurs all over the world, in every industry, including academia. While this case here has occurred and it has been thought the door was closed on it, it is very much a stone that has been overturned. It will continue to be a situation that will start others discussing and thinking about how much we need to learn about this. When we fully learn how to deal with this, it will truly be a better organization and a better world. The truth is those in leadership carry the power and the ability to do something but will they? Let’s hope that the future turns out a multitude of leadership that not only leads but cares for the welfare and treatment of the people and doesn’t prioritize the political element so much. This case study involves an academic organization and the problem of sexual harassment. This is not unique to the academic setting and a situation over several years in this study will be demonstrated. All organizations and leaders of every industry have seen at one time or another problems with the people who work in the organization. This makes sense for the problem that has been a plague in organizations that rears its ugly head, called sexual harassment. Whether it is the overt sexual advance to someone or the hostile workplace aspect, it hurts and causes a black eye in the organization. This is caused by a break down and problem in communication and it can be something that happens innocently, or not. It just is not welcomed and leaders who condone this and do not do the right things on behalf of the organization often find that they are part of the problem. This sexual harassment cannot persist and tears down the positives that are going on in the organization. It is like a disease that comes in and starts tearing on the very fiber of what is going on in the organization. It affects the organizations and its mission and the ability to gain ground and growth. In fact, it stops growth and causes decay of some of the better things and parts of the organization. As it continues it makes people have to work in a culture that is toxic and cannot keep going forward. If it does go forward, it will kill motivation, loyalty and hurt the relationships and communication that helps move the organization in the right direction. This is an example of sexual harassment in an academic setting that was allowed to fester and cause more damage. No form of leadership in the institution did anything to take care of the problem and only moved people to other locations which was just putting the problem on another manager. The senior and higher leadership punished the wrong person and let the other two perpetrators go forth and continue to add to the failing culture, keeping them on the payroll (Spangenburg, 2012). Why has leadership been around so many years, and yet, some take it seriously and some do not. This does cause a phenomenon that drives many of us back to school, and learning more about it. Leadership has been a fascinating element since the dawn of time. The first leadership can be traced back to biblical times and through time we have become more engaged in the workplace and more focused on behaviors and attitudes. That has led to many outcomes and a host of different diverse studies on the topics. This has meaning and has been something that we hold on to and value.
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