The Business Review Journal

(The Journal of American Business Review, Cambridge)

Vol. 5* Number 1 * December 2016

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 1553 - 5827

The Library of Congress, Washington, DC   *   ISSN 2167-0803

Online Computer Library Center, OH   *   OCLC: 940146916

National Library of Australia   *   NLA: 49026139

The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI,

Peer-reviewed Scholarly Journal

Refereed Academic Journal

Indexed Journal

Since 2001

All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process.

Main Page   *   Home   *   Scholarly Journals   *   Academic Conferences   *   Previous Journal Issues   *   Journal Subscription


Submit Paper   *   Editorial Team   *   Tracks   *   Guideline   *   Sample Page   *   Standards for Authors / Editors   *   Voice of the Editors

Members   *   Participating Universities   *   Editorial Policies   *   Cambridge Research Library   *   Publication Ethics   *   Accepted Papers' List

The primary goal of the journal will be to provide opportunities for business related academicians and professionals from various business related fields in a global realm to publish their paper in one source. The journal will bring together academicians and professionals from all areas related business fields and related fields to interact with members inside and outside their own particular disciplines. The journal will provide opportunities for publishing researcher's paper as well as providing opportunities to view other's work. All submissions are subject to a double blind peer review process.  The journal is a refereed academic journal which  publishes the  scientific research findings in its field with the ISSN 2167-0803 issued by the Library of Congress, Washington, DC.  The journal will meet the quality and integrity requirements of applicable accreditation agencies (AACSB, regional) and journal evaluation organizations to insure our publications provide our authors publication venues that are recognized by their institutions for academic advancement and academically qualified statue.  No Manuscript Will Be Accepted Without the Required Format.  All Manuscripts Should Be Professionally Proofread Before the Submission.  You can use for professional proofreading / editing etc...

The Journal is published two times a year, Summer and December. The e-mail:; Website,  Requests for subscriptions, back issues, and changes of address, as well as advertising can be made via the e-mail address above. Manuscripts and other materials of an editorial nature should be directed to the Journal's e-mail address above. Address advertising inquiries to Advertising Manager.

Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the journal.  You are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of any information (text; pictures; tables. etc..) from this web site or any other linked web pages is strictly prohibited. Request permission/Purchase article (s):


Copyright 2001-2024 AABJ. All Rights Reserved

United States Remains Greedy for Taxes

Dr. Denise de la Rosa, Grand Valley State University, MI

Dennis C. Stovall, Grand Valley State University, MI



Over recent years, the United States has made its way to the top of the list for the highest corporate tax rate among all Organization for Economic Cooperation and Development (OECD) countries. Competition for corporate tax dollars has continued to increase, especially after the economic recession in 2008. Countries are now competing with each other to have the lowest corporate tax rate so they can attract companies to move their headquarters there. This paper shows the shift of corporate tax rates amongst the OECD countries from 2006 to 2015 and discusses the reasons why select countries decreased their corporate tax rate so dramatically. New ideas have been introduced throughout the years in the United States but nothing has been done to change the high tax rate. The United States should soon join other OECD countries and lower its corporate tax rate so companies can become a world leader in investment and growth. Competition has continued to increase over the years and not just between companies, but between countries. Countries are marketing themselves as location options for corporation’s headquarters. Different tax structures appeal to corporations of a particular industry. Different regulations and taxation policies give companies reasons to move production facilities to the country that has the best tax structure for them.  See Exhibit 1.1, below: The United States has the third highest general top marginal corporate income tax rate in the world at 39 percent, which is the same as Puerto Rico and is exceeded only by Chad and the United Arab Emirates.  The worldwide average top corporate income tax rate (accounting for 173 countries and tax jurisdictions) is 22.9 percent, 29.8 percent weighted by GDP.  By region, Europe has the lowest average corporate tax rate at 18.7 percent (26.1 percent weighted by GDP). Africa has the highest simple average at 28.77 percent.  Larger, more industrialized countries tend to have higher corporate income tax rates than developing countries.  The worldwide average corporate tax rate has declined since 2003 from 30 percent to 22.9 percent.


Full text


Organization and Use of Executive Advisory Boards in Business Schools: Best Practices

Dr. Jan Duggar, University of North Florida, FL

Dr. Julius Demps II, Jacksonville University, FL

Dr. Russell Baker, Jacksonville University, FL



The purpose of this paper is to assist deans and business schools in developing effective advisory boards that add value to the schools’ activities and programs along with assisting in achieving the schools’ mission. The paper addresses the following steps involved in establishing an advisory board: (a) mission statement for the advisory board; (b) statement of purpose for the advisory board; (c) selecting board members; (d) appointing members; (e) adopting charter documents; (f) forming committees, (g) setting agendas for meetings; (h) using the board; (i) raising funds; (j) developing school and program advocacy; (k) providing publicity for members; and (l) evolving member responsibilities. Business school advisory boards in the United States include an array of benefits that help the school to grow, sustain, and compete. Advisory board proliferation and implementation appears to become somewhat mandatory if these institutions wish to remain relevant.  Indeed the role boards play within business schools are too large for a singular dean to facilitate or faculty members to carry out with their duties of conducting research, teaching, and university service.  Various functions that boards assist with include curriculum issues and ideas for new business programs, accreditation, community image and outreach, and fundraising.  Nagai & Nehls (2014) state “Advisory boards typically offer guidance, support, social, and financial capital to academic units within colleges and universities. They are generally comprised of prominent volunteers from the community and appropriate industries or businesses.”  Further illustration of the benefits of colleges and universities exercising community outreach is articulated when Conroy & LeFever (1996) offer the following regarding the importance of advisory boards and image: A well-chosen advisory board that comprises industry-leaders is a visible sign that program’s administration is seriously interested in maintaining its connection with the industry.  In this sense, the concept of image goes far beyond mere window dressing.  While most programs have mechanisms for determining and responding to industry concerns, by empaneling an advisory board administrators give a concrete and clear signal that they will methodically and intentionally seek out the input of industry leaders. 


Full text


Re-positioning Negotiating Styles within a Values Framework

Dr. David A Robinson, RMIT Asia Graduate Centre, RMIT University, Vietnam

Dr. Trung Quang Nguyen, RMIT Asia Graduate Centre, RMIT University, Vietnam



Management theories may be an essential tool used by many professional managers in an attempt to improve their understanding of what works in relation to leadership and management in organizations. Yet, with the proliferation of management theory and the sheer volume of literature on the subject of management, there is a risk that managers will be unable to absorb all the necessary theories that could be useful to them. Furthermore, theories may appear to contradict each other. For that reason, the authors believe there is a pivotal role for the meta-model, i.e. ‘a model that combines and embraces established models or theories to facilitate a deeper, richer application of each in its own right’ (Robinson, Morgan & Nguyen, 2016). A previous paper by the same authors (2016) integrated four traditional management theories into a single meta-model known as the Values Journey. The use of a meta-model increases the likelihood of the contingent being practically applied in workplaces. This paper expands the same concept by integrating negotiation styles into the Values Journey meta-model.  It has already been shown that the Values Journey meta-model has been used to integrate Maslow’s Hierarchy of Needs, Herzberg and McGregor’s motivational theories, Tuckman’s model of team effectiveness and Belbin’s Team Roles (Robinson, Morgan and Nguyen, 2016). This paper further explores the usefulness of the Values Journey as a meta-model that incorporates negotiating styles and enhances our understanding of negotiating positions. Furthermore it introduces a model to facilitate successful collaborative negotiations. “The psychology of the mature human being is an unfolding, emergent, oscillating, spiralling process marked by progressive subordination of older, lower-order behaviour systems to newer, higher-order systems as man’s existential problems change” Graves, 1970 With its origin in Graves’s (1970) Model of Bio-Psycho-Social Behaviour, in which he asserted that developing people experience continuing emotional and intellectual between two opposing developmental forces.  One force compels them to act ever more responsibly by fitting in with the world; the other to exert their innate power of self-determination in pursuit of ultimate autonomy.


Full text


The Influence of Moral Emotions on the Relationship Between Workplace Bullying and Attachment

Dr. Jacqueline N. Hood, University of New Mexico, NM

Dr. Kathryn J. L. Jacobson, University of New Mexico, NM

Dr. Ryan P. Jacobson, University of New Mexico, NM



Workplace bullying is defined as repeated, malicious, and health-endangering mistreatment of an employee by one or more other employees. Workplace bullying has been associated with negative outcomes for the individual being bullied and for the organization in which such actions take place. This paper discusses the relationship between workplace bullying, attachment style and the moral emotions of guilt and shame. It is proposed that an individual’s attachment style (secure or insecure) is related to bullying such that those with a secure attachment are less likely to bully than those with an insecure attachment.  Further, the paper suggests that the moral emotions of guilt and shame moderate the effects of attachment style on bullying.  Specifically, it is proposed that the more secure one’s attachment style the less likely the individual is to exhibit workplace bullying behavior with guilt and shame proneness strengthening this relationship.  Further, the more insecure one’s attachment style, the more likely the individual is to exhibit workplace bullying behavior with guilt and shame proneness weakening this relationship. Workplace bullying has become an increasingly important topic in the business literature since managers need to retain the best and the brightest employees in the current highly competitive business environment.  Workplace bullying is the repeated, malicious, and health-endangering mistreatment of another individual or individuals at work (Jennifer, Cowie, and Ananiadou, 2003; Einarsen, 1999; Namie and Namie, 2000). Bullying has been found to have negative individual and organizational outcomes, such as psychosomatic illness (Djurkovic, McCormack, and Casimir, 2004), alcohol abuse, (Richman, Flaherty, and Rospenda, 1996), post-traumatic stress disorder (Vartia, 2001, 2003), reduced productivity (Hoel, Einarsen, and Cooper, 2003), decreased job satisfaction, reduced organizational commitment, and greater intention to leave (Tepper, 2000).  Although there have been a number of studies on the consequences of bullying, as well as the characteristics of victims, there is a paucity of research on the antecedents of workplace bullying. 


Full text


Methodology Calculation Differences of Customer Satisfaction of Field Service in China

Dr. William Bleuel, Pepperdine University, CA

Xiangre Kong, Pepperdine University, CA



In current high technology markets, customer satisfaction is becoming a more significant aspect of business management. In China, companies that provide products and services are concerned about the impact of field service on customer satisfaction as it may be affected by speed of economic development. This study examines customer satisfaction measurements with Field Service in China to determine whether there is a difference in the drivers of satisfaction provided by three different statistical methodologies; namely regression analysis, factor analysis and structural equation modeling.  The trend in Overall Satisfaction over the eight years from 2005 to 2012 has been positive.  Calculations of measured parameters of Field Service from the three methodologies are similar for the past eight years but with different orders of emphasis both between the methodologies and the years.  For each of the three methodologies, the two most significant factors are estimated and compared.  The comparison indicates that there is no consistency between the top two factors.  The results suggest that companies need to understand the similarities and differences in these computational methodologies in order to optimize the use of their resources and adjust their field service offerings to respond to their customer needs and expectations most effectively. For each company, market position is often impacted by well-organized product support. One way is to provide a level of customer satisfaction that meets customer expectations. While customer satisfaction does not completely imply customer loyalty, it is usually a significant factor.  Since the high technology industry has such a short half-life and serious competition, high technology companies usually need to pay significant attention to supporting their products in order to increase the likelihood of customer retention. The use of Field Service to improve customer satisfaction, especially in high technology companies, has been studied in terms of creating systems into cloud computing to improve the customer retention rate. [1] By collecting, organizing and analyzing Field Service data in a timely manner, companies can monitor and improve service quality. [2] Technology advancements have had an impact on employees and customers. In general, as the use of technology increases, the impact and implementation may induce stress on the users. [3] In China, personal education of communication and technical skills is lacking.


Full text


A Game Theoretical Analysis of the Equality of Cross-Regional Public Resources and Environment

Dr. Chen-Kuo Lee, Ling Tung University, Taiwan, R.O.C.

Li-Ru Chen, Department of Industrial Education and Technology, National Changhua University of Education, Taiwan, R.O.C.



This study discusses the equality of cross-regional public resources and environment using a cross-regional game model and the system arranged by central governments. Secondly, this study intends to identify the solutions for the cross-regional pollutions using game theories in order to identify the pareto optimal equilibrium in which all parties cooperate with and treat each other fairly. This study finds that, after the lengthy and repeated game process ends, all parties adjust their cross-regional pollutions strategies and choose pareto optimal equilibrium rationally instead of their strategies. Therefore, pareto optimal equilibrium is attainable for central governments using incentives and appropriate systems.  Ecological environment is one of the fundamental resources for economic and social developments. There is no doubt that environment protection is an essential choice for sustainable development (Brunnce, 2004). Faced with the irreversible trend of economic globalization, every nation strives to maximize its interests. Ironically, the political and economic inequality causes a number of developed nations to shift their pollutions and ecological crisis to the developing nations and have thus damaged the developing nations’ existence, particularly their sustainable development and environment safety (Rao,2002; Pocklington,2003; Dunoff,2004; Stander, 2004). The international community spares no effort to solve the problems arising from the overdevelopment and has thus implemented a multi-legal framework that controls hazardous wastes crossing borders using the Basel Convention as its core element based on global and regional treaties, bilateral agreements, and domestic legislatures, thereby creating the legal basis for the international community to control hazardous wastes being shifted across borders (Schneider,1996; Waugh,2000; Gallegos, 2002). Nevertheless, the international laws and domestic laws are unable to solve the problems permanently at the time that the huge difference between developed nations and developing nations continues to exist (Marcus, 2001; Gary and Moseley,2005; S


Full text


Corporate Governance and Firm Financial Performance: The Effects on Security Returns of

Listed Companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand

Dr. Kanibhatti Nitirojntanad, Chulalongkorn University, Thailand

Dr. Nantana Jaengsawang, Rajabhat Thepsatri University, Thailand



The purpose of this study is to analyze the effects of corporate governance and firm financial performance on the security returns of listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand.  This study used secondary data of 339 listed companies in the Stock Exchange of Thailand in all industrial groups excluding companies in the market for alternative investment, business financial group, as well as the rehabilitation companies.  The data was analyzed using multiple regression analysis.  The results suggested that corporate governance as proxies by board composition and ownership structure including percentage of directors in board meetings, percentage of free float on total shareholders were found to have positive effects on security returns whereas board size was found to have negative effects on security returns. The percentage of directors with financial or accounting expertise in the audit committee was not found to have significant effect on security returns.  Firm financial performance as measured by earnings before interests, taxes, depreciation and amortization (EBITDA) was found to have positive effects on security returns while free cash flows were not found to have significant effect on security returns.  Book value as a control variable was found positively related to security returns whereas the leverage as measured by the ratio of equity to total debt was not found to be significantly related to security returns. The results of this study implied that corporate governance and firm financial performance are important information affecting security returns of listed companies in the stock exchange of Thailand. Therefore, information disclosed in the financial reports of companies listed on Stock Exchange of Thailand are relevant to investor decision making.


Full text


The Demise of Academic Structure - When Organizational Ails Blindside the Organization

Dr. Janice Spangenburg



Treating individuals with dignity and respect never goes out of style, and incidences of maltreatment and sexual harassment are rife in organizations because it does not discriminate and it often is not just between one gender and another. Harassment can target those who are different in other ways and those with education or wisdom and who know the difference. A case just like this case study occurs all over the world, in every industry, including academia. While this case here has occurred and it has been thought the door was closed on it, it is very much a stone that has been overturned. It will continue to be a situation that will start others discussing and thinking about how much we need to learn about this. When we fully learn how to deal with this, it will truly be a better organization and a better world. The truth is those in leadership carry the power and the ability to do something but will they? Let’s hope that the future turns out a multitude of leadership that not only leads but cares for the welfare and treatment of the people and doesn’t prioritize the political element so much. This case study involves an academic organization and the problem of sexual harassment. This is not unique to the academic setting and a situation over several years in this study will be demonstrated. All organizations and leaders of every industry have seen at one time or another problems with the people who work in the organization. This makes sense for the problem that has been a plague in organizations that rears its ugly head, called sexual harassment. Whether it is the overt sexual advance to someone or the hostile workplace aspect, it hurts and causes a black eye in the organization. This is caused by a break down and problem in communication and it can be something that happens innocently, or not. It just is not welcomed and leaders who condone this and do not do the right things on behalf of the organization often find that they are part of the problem. This sexual harassment cannot persist and tears down the positives that are going on in the organization. It is like a disease that comes in and starts tearing on the very fiber of what is going on in the organization. It affects the organizations and its mission and the ability to gain ground and growth. In fact, it stops growth and causes decay of some of the better things and parts of the organization.


Full text


Copyright: All rights reserved. No part of the material protected by this copyright notice may be reproduced or utilized in any form or by any means, including photocopying and recording, or by any information storage and retrieval system, without the written permission of the journal.  You are hereby notified that any disclosure, copying, distribution or use of any information (text; pictures; tables. etc..) from this web site or any other linked web pages is strictly prohibited. Request permission/Purchase article (s):


Member: Association of American Publishers (AAP), Professional / Scholarly Publishing, New York

Member: Chamber of Commerce of Beverly Hills, Los Angeles, California.

Index: The Library of Congress, Washington, DC:    ISSN: 1540 – 7780

Index: Online Computer Library Center, OH:   OCLC: 805078765 

Index: National Library of Australia: NLA: 42709473

Index: Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI.

Contact us   *   Site Index   *   Copyright Issues   *   About us   *   Publication Policy   *    AACSB Accreditation

Google Scholar Index1  *  Google Scholar Index2   *   The Cambridge Social Science Citation Index, CSSCI


 Copyright © 2001-2023 AABJ. All rights reserved. No information may be duplicated without permission from AABJ. 

(back to top)